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Ecology intro

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Transcript

  • 1. INTRODUCTION ECOLOGY
  • 2. KEYWORDS
    • Ecology ecosystem pioneer species
    • Biosphere biotic factor climax community
    • Species abiotic factor biome
    • Population niche autotroph
    • Community ecological succession heterotroph
  • 3. ECOLOGY
    • Study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
      • German biologist Ernst Haeckel coined the term
  • 4. RECALL HBO
    • What are levels under the HBO?
    • How does energy flow from one level to another?
  • 5. BIOMES
    • A. Land Biomes
    • 1. Tundra
    • 2. Taiga
    • 3. Temperate deciduous forest
    • 4. Grassland
    • 5. Tropical rainforest
    • 6. Desert
    • B. Aquatic Biomes
    • 1. Freshwater
    • 2. Marine
    • 3. Estuary
  • 6. BIOMES
    • Have the same climate and similar dominant community
      • Interplay between the abiotic and biotic factors
  • 7. Ecological niche
    • The role or job of an organism in its environment
      • As simple as producer or consumer
      • Keystone species or sentinel species
  • 8. Ecological succession
    • - the sequence of communities that develops in an area from the initial stages of colonization until a stable climax community is achieved
  • 9. Primary succession
    • Colonization of an area devoid of soil by pioneer species/plant life (algae/lichen) that can lead to a climax community
      • Climax community- steady-state reached by organisms through an ecological succession
  • 10. Secondary succession
    • Is due to an event that resulted in the revegetation of an area that already has an established community
      • Fire
      • Volcanic eruption
  • 11. Ecological Succession
    • Is present in terrestrial and aquatic environment
  • 12. Flow of energy
    • Recall: trophic levels- producers, consumers
    • Feeding relationships: food chains, food webs
    • Ecological pyramids
      • Energy
      • Biomass
      • numbers
  • 13. Energy pyramid
    • No limit in the trophic level in a food chain
    • BUT, energy decreases once it is passed from one level to another due to life processes
    • 10% is transferred from level to another
  • 14. Biomass pyramid
    • Biomass- the amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
    • Biomass pyramid- amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem
      • Can be an inverted pyramid such as in the case of the rain forest
  • 15. Pyramid of numbers
    • Amount or number of organisms at each trophic level
      • not always represent a pyramid such as in a rainforest
  • 16. Cycles of Matter
    • Energy has a one-way flow, matter is recycled
      • Recycling happens through the biogeochemical cycles
        • Water
        • Carbon
        • Nitrogen
        • Phosphorous
  • 17. Disruptions in the compartments
  • 18. Nutrient limitation
    • Primary productivity- rate at which organic matter is created by producers
    • Limiting nutrient- a nutrient that limits the productivity of an ecosystem
      • NPK
    • An aquatic environment is considered a nutrient poor ecosystem compared to land
  • 19. H2O Cycle
  • 20. Carbon and Oxygen Cycle
  • 21. Nitrogen Cycle
  • 22. Phosphorous Cycle
  • 23. Algal Bloom and Eutrophication
  • 24. Niche
    • Full range of physical and biological conditions an organism lives and the way the organism uses these conditions
      • Biotic- place in the food chain
      • Abiotic- temperature, moisture range for survival
  • 25. Community interactions
    • Competition
      • Competitive exclusion principle
    • Predation
    • Symbiosis- any relationship in which two species live closely together
      • Mutualism
      • Commensalism
      • Parasitism – sometimes considered as predation
  • 26. Competitive exclusion principle