DIGESTION
 
What does the previous slide suggest?
<ul><li>Digestion leads to the breakdown of the important substances needed by the body to grow and develop….. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Why does the plant need to eat a fly when it can undergo photosynthesis? </li></ul>
Plant nutrition <ul><li>Plant are producers, they are ________. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are _______, they are heterotrop...
 
Digestion as an evolutionary evidence <ul><li>Compartmentalization </li></ul><ul><li>Mode of feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Mut...
Intracellular, extracellular and everything in between….. <ul><li>Intracellular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food vacuoles, amoeb...
Incomplete digestive system bridges….. <ul><li>Differs from complete because…… </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. gastrovascular cavit...
Gastrovascular cavity
Complete <ul><li>Specialized compartment </li></ul><ul><li>Exit and entrance are different </li></ul><ul><li>Extracellular...
Modes of Feeding <ul><li>Suspension feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid feeders </li></ul>...
 
Symbiosis is nice….. <ul><li>Evolution of symbiotic relationship with other organisms in processing food </li></ul><ul><li...
The four-chambered stomach of cows
Four stages of food processing <ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digestion ...
 
The oral cavity or in short the mouth <ul><li>What is the mouth for? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need to produce saliva? <...
Mechanical Digestion, what is it for?
Pharynx <ul><li>Crossroad of food and air </li></ul><ul><li>Where bolus enters the esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis-...
Epiglottis in action
The esophagus <ul><li>Presence of striated and smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Moves the bolus from pharynx to the stomach...
Peristalsis <ul><li>Wave-like motion responsible for the movement of digested food in the alimentary canal </li></ul>
 
The stomach <ul><li>Storage and digestion of food </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincters- regulate movement of bolus and chyme </li>...
Still on stomach….. <ul><li>Chief cells vs parietal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Pepsinogen and HCl follows a positive feedback...
Ouch, my stomach hurts…. <ul><li>Rapid mitotic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of pepsin </li></ul><ul><li>Goblet ce...
Ouch, my heart burns!!!! <ul><li>Heart burn is not caused by the devil or your evil exes burning your heart, it is the res...
Small intestine <ul><li>Main organ of digestion and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it the longest? </li></ul><ul><li>...
Absorption <ul><li>Villus - folds found in the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Microvillus - microscopic fingerlike proj...
RECITATION ON THE DIGESTION OF THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>F...
Hormones that regulate digestion <ul><li>Gastrin-stimulated by gastric juices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibited by low pH </...
Large Intestine <ul><li>Also called the colon </li></ul><ul><li>Cecum – small pouch that has different fxns </li></ul><ul>...
Large Intestine <ul><li>Intestinal Bacteria- common example is  E. coli </li></ul><ul><li>Have mutualistic relationship wi...
Nutrition <ul><li>Nutritionally adequate diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fuel (chem...
Balancing the fuel <ul><li>Homeostatic mechanism balances the animal’s fuel </li></ul><ul><li>ATPs that were produced are ...
Caloric Imbalance <ul><li>Undernourishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorie deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overnourishment...
Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Essential Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li>...
Essential Amino Acids <ul><li>Tryptophan, methionine, Valine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Histi...
Essential Fatty Acids <ul><li>Essential Fatty Acids belong to the unsaturated fatty acid groups </li></ul><ul><li>An examp...
Vitamins <ul><li>Organic molecules that are required relatively in small amount </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul...
Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic nutrients that are required in small amounts </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Calcium, Phosphorous, Sodiu...
Balance diet <ul><li>what enters= what leaves </li></ul><ul><li>It is easier to take in calories in the body than to burn ...
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Digestio nnew

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Digestio nnew

  1. 1. DIGESTION
  2. 3. What does the previous slide suggest?
  3. 4. <ul><li>Digestion leads to the breakdown of the important substances needed by the body to grow and develop….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Why does the plant need to eat a fly when it can undergo photosynthesis? </li></ul>
  5. 6. Plant nutrition <ul><li>Plant are producers, they are ________. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are _______, they are heterotrophic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs are opportunistic feeders </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Digestion as an evolutionary evidence <ul><li>Compartmentalization </li></ul><ul><li>Mode of feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualistic relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also presence of fats, why? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Intracellular, extracellular and everything in between….. <ul><li>Intracellular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food vacuoles, amoebocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extracellular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete vs complete digestive system </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Incomplete digestive system bridges….. <ul><li>Differs from complete because…… </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. gastrovascular cavity of cnidarians </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrodermis- with specialized digestive cells </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROLYSIS OF MACROMOLECULES IS INTRACELLULAR </li></ul>
  9. 11. Gastrovascular cavity
  10. 12. Complete <ul><li>Specialized compartment </li></ul><ul><li>Exit and entrance are different </li></ul><ul><li>Extracellular hydrolysis of food </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity varies </li></ul>
  11. 13. Modes of Feeding <ul><li>Suspension feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk feeders </li></ul>
  12. 15. Symbiosis is nice….. <ul><li>Evolution of symbiotic relationship with other organisms in processing food </li></ul><ul><li>… . why is this needed? </li></ul>
  13. 16. The four-chambered stomach of cows
  14. 17. Four stages of food processing <ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical vs chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination </li></ul>
  15. 19. The oral cavity or in short the mouth <ul><li>What is the mouth for? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need to produce saliva? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an enzyme and how does it help in the digestion of food? </li></ul>
  16. 20. Mechanical Digestion, what is it for?
  17. 21. Pharynx <ul><li>Crossroad of food and air </li></ul><ul><li>Where bolus enters the esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis- flap that covers the entrance of air when swallowing </li></ul>
  18. 22. Epiglottis in action
  19. 23. The esophagus <ul><li>Presence of striated and smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Moves the bolus from pharynx to the stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peristalsis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence of goblet cells </li></ul>
  20. 24. Peristalsis <ul><li>Wave-like motion responsible for the movement of digested food in the alimentary canal </li></ul>
  21. 26. The stomach <ul><li>Storage and digestion of food </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincters- regulate movement of bolus and chyme </li></ul><ul><li>Which one has a larger stomach, a carnivore or an herbivore? (pound-for-pound) </li></ul>
  22. 27. Still on stomach….. <ul><li>Chief cells vs parietal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Pepsinogen and HCl follows a positive feedback mechanism </li></ul>
  23. 28. Ouch, my stomach hurts…. <ul><li>Rapid mitotic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of pepsin </li></ul><ul><li>Goblet cells </li></ul>
  24. 29. Ouch, my heart burns!!!! <ul><li>Heart burn is not caused by the devil or your evil exes burning your heart, it is the result of the loosening of the valves </li></ul>
  25. 30. Small intestine <ul><li>Main organ of digestion and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it the longest? </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into the duodenum, jejunum, ileum </li></ul>
  26. 31. Absorption <ul><li>Villus - folds found in the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Microvillus - microscopic fingerlike projections that increases the absorption of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Each villus is connected to a capillary (BV) network and lacteals(Lymphatic system) </li></ul>
  27. 32. RECITATION ON THE DIGESTION OF THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul>
  28. 33. Hormones that regulate digestion <ul><li>Gastrin-stimulated by gastric juices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibited by low pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates secretion of gastric juice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterogastrones- group of enzymes found in the duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Cholecystokinin (CCK)- stimulated by fats and amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates gall bladder to release bile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secretin- stimulated by the acidic chyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If chyme is rich in fats, it stimulates the duodenum to release other enzymes to slow down digestion in the stomach </li></ul></ul>
  29. 34. Large Intestine <ul><li>Also called the colon </li></ul><ul><li>Cecum – small pouch that has different fxns </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix- small cecum found in man </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum- portion of the large intestine that temporarily stores feces </li></ul><ul><li>Main fxn of colon is to reabsorb water </li></ul><ul><li>Feces- waste that was formed after digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compactness depends on water that was reabsorbed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 35. Large Intestine <ul><li>Intestinal Bacteria- common example is E. coli </li></ul><ul><li>Have mutualistic relationship with host </li></ul><ul><li>Generate methane or hydrogen sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Some produce vitamins that are needed by the body </li></ul>
  31. 36. Nutrition <ul><li>Nutritionally adequate diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fuel (chemical energy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organic raw materials (carbon skeletons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>essential nutrients (substances the animal cannot make) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 37. Balancing the fuel <ul><li>Homeostatic mechanism balances the animal’s fuel </li></ul><ul><li>ATPs that were produced are budgeted depending on the energy requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Fats have the highest amount of ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose conversion is an example of homeostatic mechanism </li></ul>
  33. 38. Caloric Imbalance <ul><li>Undernourishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorie deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overnourishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive calorie intake- results to obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malnourishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficient in any essential nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Essential Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul>
  35. 40. Essential Amino Acids <ul><li>Tryptophan, methionine, Valine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Histidine (infants) </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency in one of these may </li></ul><ul><li>result into protein deficiency </li></ul>
  36. 41. Essential Fatty Acids <ul><li>Essential Fatty Acids belong to the unsaturated fatty acid groups </li></ul><ul><li>An example is linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies are rare </li></ul>
  37. 42. Vitamins <ul><li>Organic molecules that are required relatively in small amount </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B vits, C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A, D, E, K </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 43. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic nutrients that are required in small amounts </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Calcium, Phosphorous, Sodium, etc. </li></ul>
  39. 44. Balance diet <ul><li>what enters= what leaves </li></ul><ul><li>It is easier to take in calories in the body than to burn it </li></ul><ul><li>The food pyramid serves </li></ul><ul><li>as a guide in the kind </li></ul><ul><li>of foods that should be </li></ul><ul><li>taken in </li></ul>
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