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  • 1. Classification
  • 2. Core concepts
    Modern Taxonomy or Systematics is the field of biology that deals with organizing living things such as plants and animals into a hierarchy or category that shows artificial or natural relationships
  • 3. Core concepts
    Taxonomy or systematics involves three procedures namely classification, identification and nomenclature
    Classification is a process of assigning arbitrary categories to an organism, or group/s of an organism based on its biological relatedness
  • 4. Core concepts
    Identification is a method to recognize organisms, or group/s or an organism based on its morphology, anatomy, biochemical property, molecular organization, etc. The use of traits is often subjective, but a consencus is generally made on which traits to use in identifying organisms.
  • 5. Core concepts
    Nomenclature is simply the practice of naming organisms based on rules of certain codes for every taxaof organism. The ICBN (International Code for Botanical Nomenclature) has rules for naming and publishing plant specimens that are new to science. The counterpart of ICBN is the ICZN (International Code for Zoological Nomenclature), while in microorganisms it is the International Code for Naming Bacteria.
  • 6. Keywords
    Taxonomy systematics classification
    Identification nomenclature hierarchy
    Category artificial natural
    Taxon species binomial system
    Linnean classification domain kingdom
    Division/phylum class order family genus
    Specific epithet archaea bacteria eukaryaprotistamycetae/fungi plantaeanimalia
  • 7. Classification
    Evolutionary systematics
    Pheneticsystematics
    Cladisticsystematics
  • 8. Evolutionary systematics
    Use of phylogenetic relationship and over all similarity of organisms
    Taxa > single species
    Groups of species give rise to new groups
  • 9. Evolutionary systematics
    Pre-Darwinian Linnean taxonomy- orderly lists
    Evolutionary systematics- phylogenetic trees
    Allows for paraphylectic trees
    Use of dinosaurs to links extinct and extant species
    Monophylectic
    Paraphylectic
    polyphylectic
  • 10. aves
    crocodilia
    mammalia
    dinosauria
    synapsida
    reptilia
    amniota
  • 11. Pheneticsystematics
    Also known as taximetrics
    Method of clasification that uses morphology or other observable traits regardless of any phylogentic or evolutionary relationship
  • 12. Cladisticsystematics
    Method of classifying organisms based on groups or clades
    Clades- ancestor and all descendants
    Single branch on the tree of life, monophylectic
    Plesiomorphies- derived characteristics from ancestors
    Apomorphies- evolved traits
    Synapomorphies- shared traits
  • 13. Evolutionary taxonomist- birds evolved from dinosaurs
    Cladist- birds are dinosaurs
  • 14. Linnean species vs Darwinian species
    Immutable species
    Mutable species
  • 15. Good taxonomic system should be…..
    Universally accepted
    Classification of organisms should have real biological meaning
  • 16. Scheming scientists….
    2 kingdom scheme
    4 kingdom scheme
    5 kingdom scheme
    6 kingdom scheme
    3 domain scheme
  • 17. 2 + 2 Lapulapu
    Linnaeus
    Regnum Animale
    Regnum Vegetabile
    Regnum Lapideum
    Divided into classes
  • 18. 3 + 3 Christmas tree
    Ernst Haeckel due to Leeuwenhoek
    Unicellular or multicellular
    Kingdom Protoctista
    Kingdom Animalia
    Kingdom Plantae
  • 19. 4 + 4 bagongbapor
    Herbert Copeland due to electron microscope
    Ability to discern organelles
    Monera
    Protista
    Plantae
    Animalia
    Presence of superkingdom- empire prokaryota, empire eukaryota
  • 20. 5 + 5 Voltes Five
    Robert Whittaker
    Based on nutrition- auto, hetero, saprotroph
    Monera
    Protista
    Plantae
    Fungi
    Animalia
  • 21. 6 + 6 (bonus angmakakaalam)
    Carl Woese (use of genetic makeup)
    Bacteria
    Archaea
    Protista
    Plantae
    Fungi
    Animalia
  • 22. Ultimate purpose of taxonomy
    Anongaba?
  • 23. Group Assignment
    Short history of taxonomy
    Hunter gatherer period
    Sedentary lifestyle
    Agricultural period
    Greeks to Karolus Linnaeus
    Modern taxonomy and systematics
    How do species arise?
    Biological species concept (BSC)- advantages and disadvantages over other species concept