Core concepts Modern Taxonomy or Systematics is the field of biology that deals with organizing living things such as plants and animals into a hierarchy or category that shows artificial or natural relationships
Core concepts Taxonomy or systematics involves three procedures namely classification, identification and nomenclature Classification is a process of assigning arbitrary categories to an organism, or group/s of an organism based on its biological relatedness
Core concepts Identification is a method to recognize organisms, or group/s or an organism based on its morphology, anatomy, biochemical property, molecular organization, etc. The use of traits is often subjective, but a consencus is generally made on which traits to use in identifying organisms.
Core concepts Nomenclature is simply the practice of naming organisms based on rules of certain codes for every taxaof organism. The ICBN (International Code for Botanical Nomenclature) has rules for naming and publishing plant specimens that are new to science. The counterpart of ICBN is the ICZN (International Code for Zoological Nomenclature), while in microorganisms it is the International Code for Naming Bacteria.
Keywords Taxonomy systematics classification Identification nomenclature hierarchy Category artificial natural Taxon species binomial system Linnean classification domain kingdom Division/phylum class order family genus Specific epithet archaea bacteria eukaryaprotistamycetae/fungi plantaeanimalia
Evolutionary systematics Use of phylogenetic relationship and over all similarity of organisms Taxa > single species Groups of species give rise to new groups
Evolutionary systematics Pre-Darwinian Linnean taxonomy- orderly lists Evolutionary systematics- phylogenetic trees Allows for paraphylectic trees Use of dinosaurs to links extinct and extant species Monophylectic Paraphylectic polyphylectic
Pheneticsystematics Also known as taximetrics Method of clasification that uses morphology or other observable traits regardless of any phylogentic or evolutionary relationship
Cladisticsystematics Method of classifying organisms based on groups or clades Clades- ancestor and all descendants Single branch on the tree of life, monophylectic Plesiomorphies- derived characteristics from ancestors Apomorphies- evolved traits Synapomorphies- shared traits
Evolutionary taxonomist- birds evolved from dinosaurs Cladist- birds are dinosaurs
Linnean species vs Darwinian species Immutable species Mutable species
Good taxonomic system should be….. Universally accepted Classification of organisms should have real biological meaning
Group Assignment Short history of taxonomy Hunter gatherer period Sedentary lifestyle Agricultural period Greeks to Karolus Linnaeus Modern taxonomy and systematics How do species arise? Biological species concept (BSC)- advantages and disadvantages over other species concept