Animal Transport Complete


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Animal Transport Complete

  1. 2. Topics <ul><li>Transport systems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>functionally connect the organs of exchange with the body cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most invertebrates have a gastrovascular cavity or a circulatory system for internal support </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrate phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reflected in adaptations of the cardiovascular system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Topics <ul><li>Double circulation in mammals depends on the anatomy and pumping cycle of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Structural differences of arteries, veins and capillaries correlate with their different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Physical laws governing the movement of fluids through pipes affect blood flow and pressure </li></ul>
  3. 4. Topics <ul><li>Transfer of substances between the blood and the interstitial fluid across the thin walls of capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Components of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States and other developed nations </li></ul>
  4. 5. Invertebrates circulatory system <ul><li>Gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of 2-cell thick body wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves for digestion and circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both layers are bathed by fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer- only exposed to food </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Invertebrates circulatory system <ul><li>Planarians and other flatworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also have gastrovascular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body shape ensures the efficient transfer of food </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Open vs Closed Circulatory System <ul><li>Gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suitable for animals with many cell layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open vs closed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcomes the limits of diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three basic components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory fluid (blood) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tubes (blood vessels) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pumping organ (heart) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure- motive force for fluid movement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Open circulatory system <ul><li>No distinction between blood and interstitial fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hemolymph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sinuses- interconnected spaces that surround organs </li></ul><ul><li>Heart contraction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps hemolymph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart relaxation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draws hemolymph through ostia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Closed Circulatory System <ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined to vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood is distinct from interstitial fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement of materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger vessels to smaller vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of materials is through diffusion </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Vertebrate Phylogeny is reflected in adaptations of the cardiovascular system <ul><li>Cardiovascular system- presence of heart and vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium- receives blood </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricle- pumps blood </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Vertebrate Phylogeny Is Reflected in Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Venules </li></ul><ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary beds </li></ul><ul><li>High metabolic rate- complex cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Low metabolic rate- less complex </li></ul>
  11. 13. Fish heart <ul><li>Two main chambers </li></ul><ul><li>Gill circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic circulation </li></ul>
  12. 14. Frogs and Other Amphibians <ul><li>Three-chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of forked artery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmocutaneous circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double circulation- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restores blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixing of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of ridge in the ventricle </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Mammals, birds and crocodilians <ul><li>Four-chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Left side- oxygen-rich </li></ul><ul><li>Right side- oxygen poor </li></ul><ul><li>No mixing of blood </li></ul>
  14. 16. Double Circulation in Mammals Depends on the Anatomy and Pumping Cycle of the Heart
  15. 17. The Human Heart <ul><li>Cardiac cycle- complete pumping and filling </li></ul><ul><li>Systole- contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Diastole- relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output- vol of pumped blood into systemic circuit per min </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate- no of beats per min </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke volume- amount of blood pumped per contraction </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. The Valves <ul><li>Atrioventricular (AV) valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close due to ventricular pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semilunar valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open due to ventricular pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart murmur- hissing sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse- rhythmic stretching of arteries </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. The Valves <ul><li>Lub dup sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lub- recoil of blood against closed AV valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dup- recoil of blood against semilunar valves </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat <ul><li>Heartbeat- maintained by specialized heart cell </li></ul><ul><li>Sinoatrial (SA) node- sets rhythmic beat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the pacemaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the wall of right atrium, superior vena cava </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular (AV) node- relay point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found bet right atrium and right ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulses are delayed at 0.1 s </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Heart rate <ul><li>Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of impulse produced in the heart </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Heart beat <ul><li>P wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrial contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QRS complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recovery phase </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Structural Differences of Blood Vessels Correlate with Their Different Functions
  22. 24. <ul><li>Capillaries- lack two outer layers </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries- thicker outer layers than veins </li></ul><ul><li>Veins- presence of valves </li></ul>
  23. 25. Movement of Fluid Through Pipes <ul><li>Law of Continuity </li></ul>
  24. 26. Blood Pressure <ul><li>Blood Pressure- highest in arteries during ventricular systole </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrostatic Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impedance caused by arterioles </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Blood pressure is influenced by different factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves- slows, speed up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity- large animals </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Transfer of Substances through Capillaries <ul><li>Two mechanisms that control blood flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction of smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constricts the arteriole that decrease blood flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilation increases blood flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precapillary sphincters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control blood flow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Capillary exchange <ul><li>Takes place in the endothelial wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe carried though bulk transport (endocytosis and exocytosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion (O 2 and CO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion or bulk flow through intercellular clefts </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Blood <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hemoglobin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul></ul>