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Animal Transport Complete

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animal transport

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Topics
    • Transport systems
        • functionally connect the organs of exchange with the body cells
    • Most invertebrates have a gastrovascular cavity or a circulatory system for internal support
    • Vertebrate phylogeny
        • reflected in adaptations of the cardiovascular system
  • 3. Topics
    • Double circulation in mammals depends on the anatomy and pumping cycle of the heart
    • Structural differences of arteries, veins and capillaries correlate with their different functions
    • Physical laws governing the movement of fluids through pipes affect blood flow and pressure
  • 4. Topics
    • Transfer of substances between the blood and the interstitial fluid across the thin walls of capillaries
    • Components of blood
    • Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States and other developed nations
  • 5. Invertebrates circulatory system
    • Gastrovascular cavity
      • Presence of 2-cell thick body wall
      • Serves for digestion and circulation
      • Both layers are bathed by fluid
      • Inner layer- only exposed to food
  • 6. Invertebrates circulatory system
    • Planarians and other flatworms
      • Also have gastrovascular system
      • Body shape ensures the efficient transfer of food
  • 7. Open vs Closed Circulatory System
    • Gastrovascular cavity
      • Not suitable for animals with many cell layers
    • Open vs closed
      • Overcomes the limits of diffusion
      • Three basic components
        • Circulatory fluid (blood)
        • Tubes (blood vessels)
        • Pumping organ (heart)
          • Blood pressure- motive force for fluid movement
  • 8.  
  • 9. Open circulatory system
    • No distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
      • hemolymph
    • Sinuses- interconnected spaces that surround organs
    • Heart contraction
        • Pumps hemolymph
    • Heart relaxation
        • Draws hemolymph through ostia
  • 10. Closed Circulatory System
    • Blood
      • Confined to vessels
      • Blood is distinct from interstitial fluid
    • Movement of materials
      • Larger vessels to smaller vessels
      • Exchange of materials is through diffusion
  • 11. Vertebrate Phylogeny is reflected in adaptations of the cardiovascular system
    • Cardiovascular system- presence of heart and vessels
    • Atrium- receives blood
    • Ventricle- pumps blood
    • Vessels
      • Arteries
      • Veins
      • Capillaries
  • 12. Vertebrate Phylogeny Is Reflected in Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System
    • Venules
    • Arterioles
    • Capillary beds
    • High metabolic rate- complex cardiovascular system
    • Low metabolic rate- less complex
  • 13. Fish heart
    • Two main chambers
    • Gill circulation
    • Systemic circulation
  • 14. Frogs and Other Amphibians
    • Three-chambered heart
    • Presence of forked artery
      • Pulmocutaneous circulation
      • Systemic circulation
    • Double circulation-
        • restores blood pressure
    • Mixing of blood
    • Reptiles
      • Presence of ridge in the ventricle
  • 15. Mammals, birds and crocodilians
    • Four-chambered heart
    • Left side- oxygen-rich
    • Right side- oxygen poor
    • No mixing of blood
  • 16. Double Circulation in Mammals Depends on the Anatomy and Pumping Cycle of the Heart
  • 17. The Human Heart
    • Cardiac cycle- complete pumping and filling
    • Systole- contraction
    • Diastole- relaxation
    • Cardiac output- vol of pumped blood into systemic circuit per min
      • Heart rate- no of beats per min
      • Stroke volume- amount of blood pumped per contraction
  • 18. The Valves
    • Atrioventricular (AV) valve
      • Close due to ventricular pressure
    • Semilunar valves
      • Aorta
      • Pulmonary artery
      • Open due to ventricular pressure
      • Heart murmur- hissing sound
      • Pulse- rhythmic stretching of arteries
  • 19. The Valves
    • Lub dup sound
      • Lub- recoil of blood against closed AV valves
      • Dup- recoil of blood against semilunar valves
  • 20. Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat
    • Heartbeat- maintained by specialized heart cell
    • Sinoatrial (SA) node- sets rhythmic beat
      • Also called the pacemaker
      • Found in the wall of right atrium, superior vena cava
    • Atrioventricular (AV) node- relay point
      • Found bet right atrium and right ventricle
      • Impulses are delayed at 0.1 s
  • 21. Heart rate
    • Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
      • Record of impulse produced in the heart
  • 22. Heart beat
    • P wave
      • Atrial contraction
    • QRS complex
      • Ventricular
      • contraction
    • T wave
      • Ventricular
      • recovery phase
  • 23. Structural Differences of Blood Vessels Correlate with Their Different Functions
  • 24.
    • Capillaries- lack two outer layers
    • Arteries- thicker outer layers than veins
    • Veins- presence of valves
  • 25. Movement of Fluid Through Pipes
    • Law of Continuity
  • 26. Blood Pressure
    • Blood Pressure- highest in arteries during ventricular systole
    • Hydrostatic Pressure
    • Peripheral Resistance
      • Impedance caused by arterioles
  • 27.
    • Blood pressure is influenced by different factors
      • Nerves- slows, speed up
      • Hormones
      • Body temperature
      • Exercise
      • Gravity- large animals
  • 28. Transfer of Substances through Capillaries
    • Two mechanisms that control blood flow
      • Contraction of smooth muscle
        • Constricts the arteriole that decrease blood flow
        • Dilation increases blood flow
      • Precapillary sphincters
        • Control blood flow
  • 29. Capillary exchange
    • Takes place in the endothelial wall
      • Maybe carried though bulk transport (endocytosis and exocytosis)
      • Diffusion (O 2 and CO 2 )
      • Diffusion or bulk flow through intercellular clefts
  • 30. Blood
    • Plasma
    • Cellular component
      • RBC
        • hemoglobin
      • WBC
      • Platelets