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Animal-like Protists
Core Concepts <ul><li>Animal-like protists usually are unicellular eukaryotic organisms. The absence of choroplasts and ch...
<ul><li>There are four major groups of protists based primarily on their modes of locomotion/movement: ciliophora (cilia-b...
<ul><li>Different modes of reproduction are present in animal-like protists namely: binary/longitudinal fission, conjugati...
Movement is key to Identification <ul><li>THERE IS NO PROTOZOAN THAT IS NOT MOTILE!!!!! </li></ul>
PROTOZOAN VS METAZOAN <ul><li>Proto- first; Zoa- animal </li></ul><ul><li>Meta – after; zoa- animal </li></ul>
Keywords <ul><li>Ciliophora anal pore choanoflagellate </li></ul><ul><li>Cilliate food vacuole sarcodina </li></ul><ul><li...
Phylogeny <ul><li>Most recent ancestral stock of members of Animal Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic make-up is not the ba...
 
 
Protozoa <ul><ul><li>No cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have one motile stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly inges...
 
Locomotion
Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Axoneme- made up of 9 external pairs surrounding an internal pair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside...
Pseudopodia- an extension for movement
Other forms of Pseudopodia <ul><li>Lobopodia- large and blunt extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Filopodia- thin and usually bra...
Nutrition-Phagocytosis vs Pinocytosis <ul><li>Holozoic  feeders, or  phagotrophs , ingest particles of food. </li></ul><ul...
Nutrition <ul><li>Often, the site of phagocytosis is a definite mouth structure, the  cytostome . </li></ul>
Nutrition <ul><li>Saprozoic  feeding (ingestion of soluble food) may be by  pinocytosis  or by transport of solutes across...
Excretion and Osmoregulation <ul><li>Contractile vacuoles function in osmoregulation and excretion </li></ul><ul><li>More ...
Trichocyst <ul><li>Organelle in ciliates and dinoflagellates that releases a filamentous and netlike protein to trap food ...
Reproduction <ul><li>Fission  is the cell multiplication process in protozoa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary fission  – one ...
Reproduction <ul><li>All of above accompanied by some form of mitosis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis in protozoa divisions...
Reproduction <ul><li>Many types of protists reproduce sexually as well as asexually. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isogametes  – a...
Cysts <ul><li>Many protists are able to survive harsh conditions through the formation of  cysts , dormant forms with resi...
Major Protozoan Taxa <ul><li>After the eukaryotic cell evolved, diversification followed, resulting in many clades. </li><...
Stramenopila <ul><li>The clade  Stramenopila  includes several groups of heterotrophs as well as certain groups of algae. ...
Stramenopila <ul><li>Water molds, diatoms, golden algae, brown algae. </li></ul>
Euglenozoa <ul><li>Phylum Euglenozoa  is a diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, ...
Euglenids <ul><li>Euglenids  have one or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Kinetoplastids <ul><li>Kinetoplastids  have a single, large mitochondrion that contains an organized mass of DNA called a ...
Diplomonads <ul><li>Diplomonads : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are adapted to anaerobic environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Retortamonads <ul><li>Phylum Retortamonada  includes commensal and parasitic unicells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack mitochon...
Alveolata <ul><li>Members of the clade  Alveolata  have membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane. </...
Alveolata - Ciliates <ul><li>Members of the  phylum Ciliophora  use cilia to move and feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliates hav...
Alveolata - Ciliates <ul><li>Ciliates  are a large, varied group of protists. </li></ul>
Alveolata - Ciliates <ul><li>Ciliates are structurally complex. </li></ul><ul><li>All ciliates have a  kinety  system made...
Alveolata – Types of Ciliates <ul><li>Suctorians  – ciliates that lose cilia as adults, grow a stalk and become sessile. <...
Alveolata – Reproduction in  Paramecium <ul><li>Paramecium , as well as many other protists, reproduce asexually by  binar...
Alveolata – Reproduction in  Paramecium <ul><li>Conjugation  is a sexual process that produces genetic variation. </li></u...
Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Phylum Dinoflagellata  is a diverse group of aquatic photoautotrophs and heterotrophs....
Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Each has a characteristic shape that in many species is reinforced by internal plates ...
Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Rapid growth of some dinoflagellates is responsible for causing “red tides,” which can...
Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Some dinoflagellates are bioluminescent. </li></ul><ul><li>Others live symbiotically w...
Alveolata – Apicomplexans <ul><li>Apicomplexans  are parasites of animals and some cause serious human diseases. </li></ul...
Alveolata – Apicomplexans <ul><li>Most apicomplexans have intricate life cycles  w ith both sexual and asexual stages that...
Parabasalids <ul><li>Parabasalids  move by means of flagella and an undulating part of the plasma membrane. </li></ul><ul>...
Amebas <ul><li>Amebas  are found in fresh and salt water as well as moist soil. </li></ul><ul><li>An ameba feeds by wrappi...
Nonactinopod Amebas <ul><li>Nonactinopod amebas include amebas that form lobopodia, filipodia or rhizopodia. </li></ul><ul...
Entamoebas <ul><li>Entamoebas  are parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entamoeba histol...
Granuloreticulosa <ul><li>This clade has slender pseudopodia that extend through openings in the  test , then branch and r...
Granuloreticulosa <ul><li>Pseudopodia extend through the pores in the test. </li></ul><ul><li>Foram tests in marine sedime...
Actinopod Amebas <ul><li>Actinopod amebas  form a polyphyletic group. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiolarians are one type of a...
Actinopod Amebas <ul><li>The pseudopodia of radiolarians, known as  axopodia  radiate from the central body. </li></ul>
Phylogeny and Adaptive Diversification <ul><li>Phylum Chlorophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Retortamonada </li></ul><ul><ul...
Choanoflagellate  <ul><li>Collared flagellates </li></ul><ul><li>One apical flagellum surrounded by 30-40 microvilli </li>...
Choanocyte of sponges
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Animal like protists

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Transcript of "Animal like protists"

  1. 1. Animal-like Protists
  2. 2. Core Concepts <ul><li>Animal-like protists usually are unicellular eukaryotic organisms. The absence of choroplasts and chlorophyll distinguishes these organisms from plant-like protists. Most protozoans are microscopic in nature and are seen usually in freshwater environment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There are four major groups of protists based primarily on their modes of locomotion/movement: ciliophora (cilia-bearing), zoomastigina (flagella-bearing), sporozoa (in fluids as parasites) and sarcodina (with pseudopodia) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Different modes of reproduction are present in animal-like protists namely: binary/longitudinal fission, conjugation and fragmentation. Animal muticellularity also evolved in one of these groups exemplified by the choanoflagellate. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Movement is key to Identification <ul><li>THERE IS NO PROTOZOAN THAT IS NOT MOTILE!!!!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. PROTOZOAN VS METAZOAN <ul><li>Proto- first; Zoa- animal </li></ul><ul><li>Meta – after; zoa- animal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Keywords <ul><li>Ciliophora anal pore choanoflagellate </li></ul><ul><li>Cilliate food vacuole sarcodina </li></ul><ul><li>Cilium/cilia contractile vacuole pseudopod </li></ul><ul><li>Paramecium Zoomastigina amoeba </li></ul><ul><li>Trichocyst flagellum/flagella vector </li></ul><ul><li>Macronucleus flagellate host </li></ul><ul><li>Micronucleus sporozoa conjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Gullet pellicle binary fission </li></ul>
  8. 8. Phylogeny <ul><li>Most recent ancestral stock of members of Animal Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic make-up is not the basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What characteristic was used? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Protozoa <ul><ul><li>No cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have one motile stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly ingest food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niche is limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 10000 species are symbionts </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Locomotion
  11. 14. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Axoneme- made up of 9 external pairs surrounding an internal pair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinetosome- internal part of both structures </li></ul>
  12. 15. Pseudopodia- an extension for movement
  13. 16. Other forms of Pseudopodia <ul><li>Lobopodia- large and blunt extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Filopodia- thin and usually branching </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulopodia- forms a net-like mesh </li></ul><ul><li>Axopodia- long and thin, supported by axial rods of microtubule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework: what are the different classifications of Sarcodines? Give examples. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Nutrition-Phagocytosis vs Pinocytosis <ul><li>Holozoic feeders, or phagotrophs , ingest particles of food. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food vacuole – the membrane-bound vesicle containing the food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes containing digestive enzymes. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Nutrition <ul><li>Often, the site of phagocytosis is a definite mouth structure, the cytostome . </li></ul>
  16. 19. Nutrition <ul><li>Saprozoic feeding (ingestion of soluble food) may be by pinocytosis or by transport of solutes across the cell membrane. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Excretion and Osmoregulation <ul><li>Contractile vacuoles function in osmoregulation and excretion </li></ul><ul><li>More common in freshwater </li></ul>
  18. 21. Trichocyst <ul><li>Organelle in ciliates and dinoflagellates that releases a filamentous and netlike protein to trap food </li></ul>
  19. 22. Reproduction <ul><li>Fission is the cell multiplication process in protozoa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary fission – one individual splits into two equal sized individuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding – progeny cell much smaller than parent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple fission – multiple nuclear divisions followed by multiple cytoplasmic divisions producing several offspring. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Reproduction <ul><li>All of above accompanied by some form of mitosis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis in protozoa divisions varies from metazoan mitosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear membrane often persists. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle may form within the nuclear membrane. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centrioles not observed in ciliates. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macronucleus of ciliates elongates, constricts, and divides without mitosis (amitosis). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Reproduction <ul><li>Many types of protists reproduce sexually as well as asexually. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isogametes – all look alike. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anisogametes – two different types. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syngamy – gametes from two individuals fuse to form the zygote. </li></ul><ul><li>Autogamy – gametes from one individual fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugation – gametic nuclei are exchanged. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Cysts <ul><li>Many protists are able to survive harsh conditions through the formation of cysts , dormant forms with resistant outer coverings and a shutdown of metabolism. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Major Protozoan Taxa <ul><li>After the eukaryotic cell evolved, diversification followed, resulting in many clades. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opisthokonta is a very large clade characterized by a combination of flattened mitochondrial cristae and one posterior flagellum on flagellated cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes animals, fungi, chaonoflagellates and microsporidians. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Stramenopila <ul><li>The clade Stramenopila includes several groups of heterotrophs as well as certain groups of algae. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most stramenopiles have a “hairy” flagellum paired with a “smooth” flagellum. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Stramenopila <ul><li>Water molds, diatoms, golden algae, brown algae. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Euglenozoa <ul><li>Phylum Euglenozoa is a diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites. Kinetoplastids & Euglenids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence of nucleoli during mitosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane contains microtubules to stiffen it into a pellicle . </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Euglenids <ul><li>Euglenids have one or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain chloroplasts surrounded by a double membrane – may have arisen by secondary endosymbiosis. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Kinetoplastids <ul><li>Kinetoplastids have a single, large mitochondrion that contains an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include free-living consumers of bacteria in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are parasitic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Diplomonads <ul><li>Diplomonads : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are adapted to anaerobic environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack plastids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack mitochondria but may have mitochondrial genes in the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diplomonads have two nuclei and multiple flagella. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giardia </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Retortamonads <ul><li>Phylum Retortamonada includes commensal and parasitic unicells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack mitochondria & Golgi </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. Alveolata <ul><li>Members of the clade Alveolata have membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Alveolata - Ciliates <ul><li>Members of the phylum Ciliophora use cilia to move and feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliates have large macronuclei and small micronuclei. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Alveolata - Ciliates <ul><li>Ciliates are a large, varied group of protists. </li></ul>
  34. 37. Alveolata - Ciliates <ul><li>Ciliates are structurally complex. </li></ul><ul><li>All ciliates have a kinety system made up of the cilia, kinetosomes and other fibrils. </li></ul><ul><li>Many have structures that can be expelled such as trichocysts and toxicysts . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive function </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Alveolata – Types of Ciliates <ul><li>Suctorians – ciliates that lose cilia as adults, grow a stalk and become sessile. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use tubelike tentacles for feeding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic ciliates – some commensal, others parasitic. </li></ul><ul><li>Free-living ciliates – may be swimmers, or sessile. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stentor , Vorticella , Paramecium </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. Alveolata – Reproduction in Paramecium <ul><li>Paramecium , as well as many other protists, reproduce asexually by binary fission . </li></ul>
  37. 40. Alveolata – Reproduction in Paramecium <ul><li>Conjugation is a sexual process that produces genetic variation. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugation is separate from reproduction which generally occurs by binary fission. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Phylum Dinoflagellata is a diverse group of aquatic photoautotrophs and heterotrophs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant in both marine and freshwater phytoplankton. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Each has a characteristic shape that in many species is reinforced by internal plates of cellulose. </li></ul><ul><li>Two flagella make them spin as they move through the water. </li></ul>
  40. 43. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Rapid growth of some dinoflagellates is responsible for causing “red tides,” which can be toxic to humans. </li></ul>California Noctiluca Bloom http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/index.html
  41. 44. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Some dinoflagellates are bioluminescent. </li></ul><ul><li>Others live symbiotically with corals (zooxanthellae). </li></ul>
  42. 45. Alveolata – Apicomplexans <ul><li>Apicomplexans are parasites of animals and some cause serious human diseases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named because one end, the apex, contains a complex of organelles specialized for penetrating host cells and tissues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a non-photosynthetic plastid, the apicoplast . </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. Alveolata – Apicomplexans <ul><li>Most apicomplexans have intricate life cycles w ith both sexual and asexual stages that often require two or more different host species for completion. </li></ul>
  44. 47. Parabasalids <ul><li>Parabasalids move by means of flagella and an undulating part of the plasma membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This clade may have diverged from the main eukaryotic clade very early. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trichomonas </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Amebas <ul><li>Amebas are found in fresh and salt water as well as moist soil. </li></ul><ul><li>An ameba feeds by wrapping a pseudopod around its food – phagocytosis. </li></ul>
  46. 49. Nonactinopod Amebas <ul><li>Nonactinopod amebas include amebas that form lobopodia, filipodia or rhizopodia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly heterotrophic and actively seek and consume bacteria and other protists. </li></ul>
  47. 50. Entamoebas <ul><li>Entamoebas are parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic dysentery in humans. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. Granuloreticulosa <ul><li>This clade has slender pseudopodia that extend through openings in the test , then branch and run together forming a net. </li></ul><ul><li>Foraminiferans , or forams are named for their porous, generally multichambered shells, called tests. </li></ul>
  49. 52. Granuloreticulosa <ul><li>Pseudopodia extend through the pores in the test. </li></ul><ul><li>Foram tests in marine sediments form an extensive fossil record. </li></ul>
  50. 53. Actinopod Amebas <ul><li>Actinopod amebas form a polyphyletic group. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiolarians are one type of actinopod ameba. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have very diverse and beautiful forms. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Actinopod Amebas <ul><li>The pseudopodia of radiolarians, known as axopodia radiate from the central body. </li></ul>
  52. 55. Phylogeny and Adaptive Diversification <ul><li>Phylum Chlorophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Retortamonada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Diplomonadea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order Diplomonadida </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phylum Axostylata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Parabasalea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order Trichomonadida </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phylum Euglenozoa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subphylum Euglenida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class Euglenoidea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subphylum Kinetoplasta Class Trypanosomatidea </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Apicomplexa </li></ul><ul><li>Class Gregarinea </li></ul><ul><li>Class Coccidea </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Ciliophora </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Dinoflagellata </li></ul><ul><li>Amebas </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizopodans </li></ul><ul><li>Granuloreticulosans Actinopodans </li></ul>
  53. 56. Choanoflagellate <ul><li>Collared flagellates </li></ul><ul><li>One apical flagellum surrounded by 30-40 microvilli </li></ul><ul><li>Closest relative of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondrial genome suggests that choanoflagellates are an outgroup of metazoans </li></ul>
  54. 57. Choanocyte of sponges
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