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Animal like protists


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  • 1. Animal-like Protists
  • 2. Core Concepts
    • Animal-like protists usually are unicellular eukaryotic organisms. The absence of choroplasts and chlorophyll distinguishes these organisms from plant-like protists. Most protozoans are microscopic in nature and are seen usually in freshwater environment.
  • 3.
    • There are four major groups of protists based primarily on their modes of locomotion/movement: ciliophora (cilia-bearing), zoomastigina (flagella-bearing), sporozoa (in fluids as parasites) and sarcodina (with pseudopodia)
  • 4.
    • Different modes of reproduction are present in animal-like protists namely: binary/longitudinal fission, conjugation and fragmentation. Animal muticellularity also evolved in one of these groups exemplified by the choanoflagellate.
  • 5. Movement is key to Identification
    • Proto- first; Zoa- animal
    • Meta – after; zoa- animal
  • 7. Keywords
    • Ciliophora anal pore choanoflagellate
    • Cilliate food vacuole sarcodina
    • Cilium/cilia contractile vacuole pseudopod
    • Paramecium Zoomastigina amoeba
    • Trichocyst flagellum/flagella vector
    • Macronucleus flagellate host
    • Micronucleus sporozoa conjugation
    • Gullet pellicle binary fission
  • 8. Phylogeny
    • Most recent ancestral stock of members of Animal Kingdom
    • Genetic make-up is not the basis
      • What characteristic was used?
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Protozoa
      • No cell wall
      • Have one motile stage
      • Mostly ingest food
      • Unicellular
      • Niche is limited
      • At least 10000 species are symbionts
  • 12.  
  • 13. Locomotion
  • 14. Cilia and Flagella
    • Axoneme- made up of 9 external pairs surrounding an internal pair
      • Outside the cell
    • Kinetosome- internal part of both structures
  • 15. Pseudopodia- an extension for movement
  • 16. Other forms of Pseudopodia
    • Lobopodia- large and blunt extensions
    • Filopodia- thin and usually branching
    • Reticulopodia- forms a net-like mesh
    • Axopodia- long and thin, supported by axial rods of microtubule
      • Homework: what are the different classifications of Sarcodines? Give examples.
  • 17. Nutrition-Phagocytosis vs Pinocytosis
    • Holozoic feeders, or phagotrophs , ingest particles of food.
      • Food vacuole – the membrane-bound vesicle containing the food.
      • Food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes containing digestive enzymes.
  • 18. Nutrition
    • Often, the site of phagocytosis is a definite mouth structure, the cytostome .
  • 19. Nutrition
    • Saprozoic feeding (ingestion of soluble food) may be by pinocytosis or by transport of solutes across the cell membrane.
  • 20. Excretion and Osmoregulation
    • Contractile vacuoles function in osmoregulation and excretion
    • More common in freshwater
  • 21. Trichocyst
    • Organelle in ciliates and dinoflagellates that releases a filamentous and netlike protein to trap food
  • 22. Reproduction
    • Fission is the cell multiplication process in protozoa.
      • Binary fission – one individual splits into two equal sized individuals.
      • Budding – progeny cell much smaller than parent.
      • Multiple fission – multiple nuclear divisions followed by multiple cytoplasmic divisions producing several offspring.
  • 23. Reproduction
    • All of above accompanied by some form of mitosis.
      • Mitosis in protozoa divisions varies from metazoan mitosis.
        • Nuclear membrane often persists.
        • Spindle may form within the nuclear membrane.
        • Centrioles not observed in ciliates.
        • Macronucleus of ciliates elongates, constricts, and divides without mitosis (amitosis).
  • 24. Reproduction
    • Many types of protists reproduce sexually as well as asexually.
      • Isogametes – all look alike.
      • Anisogametes – two different types.
    • Syngamy – gametes from two individuals fuse to form the zygote.
    • Autogamy – gametes from one individual fuse.
    • Conjugation – gametic nuclei are exchanged.
  • 25. Cysts
    • Many protists are able to survive harsh conditions through the formation of cysts , dormant forms with resistant outer coverings and a shutdown of metabolism.
  • 26. Major Protozoan Taxa
    • After the eukaryotic cell evolved, diversification followed, resulting in many clades.
      • Opisthokonta is a very large clade characterized by a combination of flattened mitochondrial cristae and one posterior flagellum on flagellated cells.
        • Includes animals, fungi, chaonoflagellates and microsporidians.
  • 27. Stramenopila
    • The clade Stramenopila includes several groups of heterotrophs as well as certain groups of algae.
      • Most stramenopiles have a “hairy” flagellum paired with a “smooth” flagellum.
  • 28. Stramenopila
    • Water molds, diatoms, golden algae, brown algae.
  • 29. Euglenozoa
    • Phylum Euglenozoa is a diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites. Kinetoplastids & Euglenids.
      • Persistence of nucleoli during mitosis.
      • Cell membrane contains microtubules to stiffen it into a pellicle .
  • 30. Euglenids
    • Euglenids have one or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell.
      • Contain chloroplasts surrounded by a double membrane – may have arisen by secondary endosymbiosis.
  • 31. Kinetoplastids
    • Kinetoplastids have a single, large mitochondrion that contains an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast.
      • Include free-living consumers of bacteria in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems.
      • Others are parasitic.
        • Trypanosoma
  • 32. Diplomonads
    • Diplomonads :
      • Are adapted to anaerobic environments.
      • Lack plastids.
      • Lack mitochondria but may have mitochondrial genes in the nucleus.
    • Diplomonads have two nuclei and multiple flagella.
      • Giardia
  • 33. Retortamonads
    • Phylum Retortamonada includes commensal and parasitic unicells.
      • Lack mitochondria & Golgi
  • 34. Alveolata
    • Members of the clade Alveolata have membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane.
      • Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates.
  • 35. Alveolata - Ciliates
    • Members of the phylum Ciliophora use cilia to move and feed.
    • Ciliates have large macronuclei and small micronuclei.
  • 36. Alveolata - Ciliates
    • Ciliates are a large, varied group of protists.
  • 37. Alveolata - Ciliates
    • Ciliates are structurally complex.
    • All ciliates have a kinety system made up of the cilia, kinetosomes and other fibrils.
    • Many have structures that can be expelled such as trichocysts and toxicysts .
      • Defensive function
  • 38. Alveolata – Types of Ciliates
    • Suctorians – ciliates that lose cilia as adults, grow a stalk and become sessile.
      • Use tubelike tentacles for feeding.
    • Symbiotic ciliates – some commensal, others parasitic.
    • Free-living ciliates – may be swimmers, or sessile.
      • Stentor , Vorticella , Paramecium
  • 39. Alveolata – Reproduction in Paramecium
    • Paramecium , as well as many other protists, reproduce asexually by binary fission .
  • 40. Alveolata – Reproduction in Paramecium
    • Conjugation is a sexual process that produces genetic variation.
    • Conjugation is separate from reproduction which generally occurs by binary fission.
  • 41. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates
    • Phylum Dinoflagellata is a diverse group of aquatic photoautotrophs and heterotrophs.
      • Abundant in both marine and freshwater phytoplankton.
  • 42. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates
    • Each has a characteristic shape that in many species is reinforced by internal plates of cellulose.
    • Two flagella make them spin as they move through the water.
  • 43. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates
    • Rapid growth of some dinoflagellates is responsible for causing “red tides,” which can be toxic to humans.
    California Noctiluca Bloom
  • 44. Alveolata – Dinoflagellates
    • Some dinoflagellates are bioluminescent.
    • Others live symbiotically with corals (zooxanthellae).
  • 45. Alveolata – Apicomplexans
    • Apicomplexans are parasites of animals and some cause serious human diseases.
      • Named because one end, the apex, contains a complex of organelles specialized for penetrating host cells and tissues.
      • Have a non-photosynthetic plastid, the apicoplast .
  • 46. Alveolata – Apicomplexans
    • Most apicomplexans have intricate life cycles w ith both sexual and asexual stages that often require two or more different host species for completion.
  • 47. Parabasalids
    • Parabasalids move by means of flagella and an undulating part of the plasma membrane.
      • This clade may have diverged from the main eukaryotic clade very early.
      • Trichomonas
  • 48. Amebas
    • Amebas are found in fresh and salt water as well as moist soil.
    • An ameba feeds by wrapping a pseudopod around its food – phagocytosis.
  • 49. Nonactinopod Amebas
    • Nonactinopod amebas include amebas that form lobopodia, filipodia or rhizopodia.
    • Mostly heterotrophic and actively seek and consume bacteria and other protists.
  • 50. Entamoebas
    • Entamoebas are parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates.
      • Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic dysentery in humans.
  • 51. Granuloreticulosa
    • This clade has slender pseudopodia that extend through openings in the test , then branch and run together forming a net.
    • Foraminiferans , or forams are named for their porous, generally multichambered shells, called tests.
  • 52. Granuloreticulosa
    • Pseudopodia extend through the pores in the test.
    • Foram tests in marine sediments form an extensive fossil record.
  • 53. Actinopod Amebas
    • Actinopod amebas form a polyphyletic group.
      • Radiolarians are one type of actinopod ameba.
      • They have very diverse and beautiful forms.
  • 54. Actinopod Amebas
    • The pseudopodia of radiolarians, known as axopodia radiate from the central body.
  • 55. Phylogeny and Adaptive Diversification
    • Phylum Chlorophyta
    • Phylum Retortamonada
      • Class Diplomonadea
        • Order Diplomonadida
    • Phylum Axostylata
      • Class Parabasalea
        • Order Trichomonadida
    • Phylum Euglenozoa
      • Subphylum Euglenida
        • Class Euglenoidea
    • Subphylum Kinetoplasta Class Trypanosomatidea
    • Phylum Apicomplexa
    • Class Gregarinea
    • Class Coccidea
    • Phylum Ciliophora
    • Phylum Dinoflagellata
    • Amebas
    • Rhizopodans
    • Granuloreticulosans Actinopodans
  • 56. Choanoflagellate
    • Collared flagellates
    • One apical flagellum surrounded by 30-40 microvilli
    • Closest relative of animals
    • Mitochondrial genome suggests that choanoflagellates are an outgroup of metazoans
  • 57. Choanocyte of sponges