Animal development and architecture
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  • 1. Animal Development and Architecture
  • 2. Plasmogamy vs karyogamy
    • Plasmogamy- the cytoplasm of two parent  mycelia  fuse together without the fusion of nuclei, as occurs in higher terrestrial fungi. After plasmogamy occurs, the secondary mycelium forms. The secondary mycelium consists of dikaryotic cells, one nucleus from each of the parent mycelia.
    • Karyogamy- In fungi that lack  sexual cycles , it is an important source of  genetic variation  through the formation of  somatic diploids .
  • 3. Core concept
    • Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes. In contrast to the autotrophic nutrition of plants and algae, animals must take into their bodies preformed organic molecules; they cannot construct them from inorganic chemicals. Most animals do this by ingestion---eating other organisms or organic material that is decomposing.
  • 4.
    • Animal cells lack the cell walls that provide strong support in the bodies of plants and fungi. The multicellular bodies of animals are held together by structural proteins, the most abundant being collagen.
  • 5.
    • Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle. In most species, a small flagellated sperm fertilizes a larger, non-motile egg to form a diploid zygote.
  • 6. Keywords
    • Vertebrate invertebrate symmetry
    • irregular symmetry radial symmetry bilateral symmetry
    • penta radial symmetry anterior posterior
    • dorsal ventral multicellular
    • Cleavage blastula gastrulation
    • Gastrula metamorphosis cephalization
  • 7. Recall: Development and growth
    • Specialization is due to multicellularity
    • An animal is a product of a diploid zygote
    • Reconstruction is due to
      • Cleavage (mitosis)
        • Morula (32 cells)
      • Blastulation
        • 128 cells
        • blastocoel
      • Gastrulation
        • Formation of endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
        • Followed by organogenesis
  • 8. Animal Development
    • Product of aggregation of identical cells
      • Colonial protists
    • Formation of hollow unspecialized cells
    • Specialization to reproductive and somatic cells
    • Cellular infolding and gastrulation-like process
    • The development of animals proved a strong indication of our origin from colonial protistan ancestors.
  • 9. Portuguese Man-of-War
  • 10. Animal Architecture
    • Animal symmetry is of three types: irregular (asymmetry), radial and bilateral. Irregular symmetry is the most primitive type of symmetry followed by radial, and the most advanced type which is the bilateral symmetry. 
  • 11. Symmetry
  • 12.
    • Animal multicellularity, cephalization, and trends in size play an important role in the animal evolution.
      • Why?