Motivation@WorkInspiring Passion in the Workplace          Greg Gifford, Ph.D.  Faculty, Federal Executive Institute
Workshop Agenda Complete Motivation Self-Assessment A Brief History of Motivation Overview of Sources of Work Motivatio...
Inspiring PassionWhat gets you through the door to         work everyday?
Inspiring Passion                    Leadership is…1. Purpose Driven2. Incites Change based on values & vision3. A process...
Inspiring Passion                      Motivation is…The general desire of a human being (obtained by internaland external...
Engagement Among Federal Employees                     Engaged       Somewhat      35.3%       Engaged       47.2%        ...
Brief History of Motivation         Knowing         Feeling          Willing    Volition
Motivation:  A Social-Cognitive Process Hierarchy of Needs   5 sets of needs       Physiological       Safety       L...
Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs
But What About the Workplace?         McClelland‘s Trichotomy of Needs Motivation can be divided into  3 needs:   Need f...
Meta-Theory of Work Motivation       5 sources from which motivation is derived:              Intrinsic Process Motivati...
Chart Your Course3025201510 5 0
Work Motivation Intrinsic Process Motivation   Motivated by the enjoyment of the work      being done Typical Behaviors...
Careers for Intrinsic Process Actors Daycare Workers Elementary School Teachers Entertainers
Inspiring Fun   Find out which projects or tasks are each of      Organize a ball game    your employee‘s favorites.    ...
Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0     Intrinsic   Instrumental   Self-Concept Self-Concept      Goal     Process           ...
Work Motivation Instrumental Motivation   Motivated by extrinsic tangible outcomes       pay, promotion, bonus Typical...
Careers for Instrumental Sales Stock Broker Small Business Owner Corporate Executives
Inspiring with Rewards   Create clear work objectives and goals for             Offer extra holiday time for outstanding...
Its Not Just About the Money
Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0     Intrinsic   Instrumental   Self-Concept Self-Concept      Goal     Process           ...
Work Motivation Self Concept-External Motivation   Motivated by the affirmation of traits, competencies and    values ot...
Careers for        Self Concept-External Elected Officials Public Speakers Authors Journalists Professors
Inspiring Belongingness   Give employees lots of feedback about the way they are              Create plaques and awards ...
Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0     Intrinsic   Instrumental   Self-Concept Self-Concept      Goal     Process           ...
Work Motivation Self Concept-Internal Motivation   Motivated by a self-driven desire to achieve and      exceed one‘s pe...
Careers for        Self Concept-Internal Analysts Historian Mid/Senior Level Managers Psychologist Farmers
Inspiring Personal Challenge   Avoid assigning tasks that have too much structure.                 Give them autonomy to...
Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0     Intrinsic   Instrumental   Self-Concept Self-Concept      Goal     Process           ...
Work Motivation Goal Internalization   Motivated by the belief that the work being done is    contributing to a larger c...
Careers for         Goal Internalization Government Employees Non-profit Workers Middle/High School Teachers Volunteers
Inspiring with the Mission   Communicate the purpose behind tasks or projects being             Refer to historical even...
Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0     Intrinsic   Instrumental   Self-Concept Self-Concept      Goal     Process           ...
Your ResultsMSI (Motivation Sources Inventory)      Scoring SheetIntrinsic Process: 1____, 6____, 11____, 16____, 21____,...
Your Results Dominant Source & Secondary Source Important Things to Remember…   Everyone has some amount of all 5 sourc...
Motivation Matters Typical Approach   Use one‘s own sources of motivation to motivate others Inspiring Personal Approac...
Motivating Others Case Study Review Case – 10 mins Small Group Discussion – 10 mins Large Group Report Out & Discussion...
Case Study Part 1:   What are the dominant & secondary sources of    motivation that are espoused by leaders in the case...
Case Study                     Report Out Give a Brief Overview of the Case Part 1:   What is the dominant source of mo...
Gifford ssa-full presentation
Gifford ssa-full presentation
Gifford ssa-full presentation
Gifford ssa-full presentation
Gifford ssa-full presentation
Gifford ssa-full presentation
Gifford ssa-full presentation
Gifford ssa-full presentation
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  • Purpose driven rather than objectives drivenChanges based on values and visions rather than forced changes through contractual meansInfluence based on mutual respect and understanding rather than hierarhical and strctural driven influence
  • Drawing from Plato and Aristotle , early motivation theorists conceived the mind as comprising knowing (cognition), feeling (emotion) and willing (motivation).The willing (or will) reflected an individual’s desire, want or purpose. Volition was the act of using the will.
  • When one set of needs is actualized, the next set of needs emerges
  • Gifford ssa-full presentation

    1. 1. Motivation@WorkInspiring Passion in the Workplace Greg Gifford, Ph.D. Faculty, Federal Executive Institute
    2. 2. Workshop Agenda Complete Motivation Self-Assessment A Brief History of Motivation Overview of Sources of Work Motivation Develop a Self Motivation Profile Motivation Case Studies
    3. 3. Inspiring PassionWhat gets you through the door to work everyday?
    4. 4. Inspiring Passion Leadership is…1. Purpose Driven2. Incites Change based on values & vision3. A process of influence based on mutual respect and understanding
    5. 5. Inspiring Passion Motivation is…The general desire of a human being (obtained by internaland external sources) to engage in an activity or behavior.Work Motivation: The desire and willingness to engage inwork related activities.
    6. 6. Engagement Among Federal Employees Engaged Somewhat 35.3% Engaged 47.2% Not Engaged 17.5% Source: MSPB, 2008
    7. 7. Brief History of Motivation Knowing Feeling Willing Volition
    8. 8. Motivation: A Social-Cognitive Process Hierarchy of Needs  5 sets of needs  Physiological  Safety  Love  Esteem  Self-Actualization
    9. 9. Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs
    10. 10. But What About the Workplace? McClelland‘s Trichotomy of Needs Motivation can be divided into 3 needs:  Need for Power  Need for Achievement  Need for Affiliation
    11. 11. Meta-Theory of Work Motivation  5 sources from which motivation is derived:  Intrinsic Process Motivation  Instrumental Motivation  Self Concept-External Motivation  Self Concept-Internal Motivation  Goal Internalization MotivationLeonard, Beauvais & Scholl, 1998
    12. 12. Chart Your Course3025201510 5 0
    13. 13. Work Motivation Intrinsic Process Motivation  Motivated by the enjoyment of the work being done Typical Behaviors  Talks about likes and dislikes of tasks  Volunteers for ‗fun‘ activities and tasks  May become easily bored or distracted  Usually desires variety
    14. 14. Careers for Intrinsic Process Actors Daycare Workers Elementary School Teachers Entertainers
    15. 15. Inspiring Fun Find out which projects or tasks are each of  Organize a ball game your employee‘s favorites. (softball, baseball, basketball, volleyball, foot ball). Find ways to assign more of the tasks they enjoy and fewer of the ones they don‘t like to  Organize a golf outing. do.  Schedule important meetings off-site at out- Many people love to laugh on the job — a of-the-ordinary locations. happy worker is a good worker — so let there be laughter in the workplace.  Always start a meeting with something social or fun before you get down to business. Create a quote of the week board for people who have said the funniest things on the job.  Make sure that every meeting has some scheduled fun time. Create a social calendar or events board so employees can link up for activities after  Hold events that are intended to let everyone work. have fun. Make laughter a priority when interacting with  Plan an outing to a local community event your employees.
    16. 16. Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0 Intrinsic Instrumental Self-Concept Self-Concept Goal Process External Internal Internalization
    17. 17. Work Motivation Instrumental Motivation  Motivated by extrinsic tangible outcomes  pay, promotion, bonus Typical Behaviors  ―What‘s in it for me?‖  Compensation for extra work  Discusses how much money one makes/doesn‘t make  Compares relative wealth and success of others
    18. 18. Careers for Instrumental Sales Stock Broker Small Business Owner Corporate Executives
    19. 19. Inspiring with Rewards Create clear work objectives and goals for  Offer extra holiday time for outstanding performers employees to pursue in order to earn salary (make sure that employees know about the incentive increments (no performance = no raise). well in advance). Remind employees of what they will get for their  Develop perks or prizes for individuals who can efforts. perform the best in a functional area for a given week (make sure you give the prize to the worker who performed best). Avoid across-the-board raises (this sends the message that it doesn‘t matter whether you work hard or not).  Don‘t pass out rewards evenly to all employees in an effort to include everyone. This demotivates the instrumentally motivated person. Create incentives attached to predetermined objectives and tasks.  Follow through on all of your promises. Give special awards to top performers on a regular basis.  Make sure that employees do not receive perks if they haven‘t earned them. Make clear expectations of what you expect from your employees and hold them to it when it comes  Remind employees which tasks will be most time to putting your ―money where your mouth is.‖ important for their performance evaluations.
    20. 20. Its Not Just About the Money
    21. 21. Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0 Intrinsic Instrumental Self-Concept Self-Concept Goal Process External Internal Internalization
    22. 22. Work Motivation Self Concept-External Motivation  Motivated by the affirmation of traits, competencies and values others associate with the person  Desire to gain acceptance into a group, the obtain status within that group Typical Behaviors  Frequently asks for feedback  Strives for praise and recognition  Talks (brags) about accomplishments
    23. 23. Careers for Self Concept-External Elected Officials Public Speakers Authors Journalists Professors
    24. 24. Inspiring Belongingness Give employees lots of feedback about the way they are  Create plaques and awards for top performances. performing.  Put up an achievement board to highlight some of the great Give praise in front of other people (the more people that things that have happened in the agency and who was know they did well the better!). responsible! Criticize these individuals only in private (never in front of  Put up pictures and biographies of all your employees in a others). central place. Give unsolicited compliments and positive reinforcement to  Include unique pieces of information about each employee employees for jobs with which you are satisfied. and change these items from week to week (example: favorite ice cream flavor, worst day ever, thing that I‘m most proud of, etc.). Tell your employees that you appreciate the work they do.  At company-wide meetings, create and announce serious and Start a suggestion box and publish the best suggestion made fun ―superlatives‖ (example: hardest worker, cleanest each week on the company bulletin board (make sure car, spiffiest dressed, most versatile, cleanest shoes, most everyone knows that the best suggestions will be published). athletic, most reliable). Ask employees if anything interesting happened to them this  The Gallup Organization utilizes a ―Drop in the Bucket‖ peer- weekend (they love to share their stories). to-peer recognition program. Consider implementing a similar peer-to-peer recognition effort. Give out certificates of appreciation to anyone who does extraordinarily well for the agency.  Send a weekly email highlighting individual, team and organizational accomplishments. Recognize the outstanding performers in the group at every staff meeting.
    25. 25. Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0 Intrinsic Instrumental Self-Concept Self-Concept Goal Process External Internal Internalization
    26. 26. Work Motivation Self Concept-Internal Motivation  Motivated by a self-driven desire to achieve and exceed one‘s personal standards Typical Behaviors  Seeks out difficult tasks/projects  Utilize specific skill set to complete work  Seek professional development opportunities  Work autonomously, with little direction
    27. 27. Careers for Self Concept-Internal Analysts Historian Mid/Senior Level Managers Psychologist Farmers
    28. 28. Inspiring Personal Challenge Avoid assigning tasks that have too much structure.  Give them autonomy to structure and perform their job as they see best. Find out what they think is their best skill and encourage them to use this with the tasks you assign.  Don‘t insult them by asking them to do something that just about anybody could do (they need to know that they are uniquely qualified to do it). Find out what area this person wants to most improve in and find ways for them to work on this skill.  Ask these employees to find training and development opportunities that will allow them to develop expertise. Encourage employees to develop and build on their strengths, not weaknesses.  Encourage these employees to take on projects that may fail. Avoid assigning (too many) mundane tasks to these employees.  Remind these employees that they shouldn‘t take ―no‖ for an answer from anyone. Assign projects rather than tasks.  Ask these employees to come up with several plausible solutions to a situation, not just one answer. Play devil‘s advocate with proposals or solutions presented by these employees.  Encourage employees to brainstorm innovative or new ideas. Challenge these employees by saying, ―I‘m not sure if you are up to this challenge, but...‖  Challenge these employees to find and ―be on the cutting edge‖ of the profession. Give them a challenging project with no clear solution, then get out of their way.
    29. 29. Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0 Intrinsic Instrumental Self-Concept Self-Concept Goal Process External Internal Internalization
    30. 30. Work Motivation Goal Internalization  Motivated by the belief that the work being done is contributing to a larger cause or collective goals Typical Behaviors  ―Why are we doing this?‖  Discusses strategic focus of the organization  Live professional and personal life guided by a strict set of principles and values
    31. 31. Careers for Goal Internalization Government Employees Non-profit Workers Middle/High School Teachers Volunteers
    32. 32. Inspiring with the Mission Communicate the purpose behind tasks or projects being  Refer to historical events that have impacted the country or assigned. agency to add context to work being done. Involve these employees in developing or redeveloping  Encourage employees to develop a personal leadership visions, missions and goals. vision. Find creative ways to display, depict or represent the vision  Consistently refer to the purpose(s) of government and and mission in a visible place. government service. Refer to the purpose of the organization and ―why we exist‖  Take time to honor or recognize those who have served in when outlining strategies and goals. government. Allow employees to ―interact‖ with the purpose by posting the  Encourage employees to tell stories about their time public contributions they make or have made to the mission. service and why their time is meaningful. Remind employees of who depends on this organization to  Find meaning in every assignment or project given to succeed (families, communities, industry). employees. Make links between their work and the bigger picture.  Ask this employee to coordinate a community relations event (e.g.--blood drive, the combined campaign, canned food drive or run/walk for a cause). As you assign projects, provide a clear linkage between the project and the mission of the agency.
    33. 33. Where Do You Rank?3025201510 5 0 Intrinsic Instrumental Self-Concept Self-Concept Goal Process External Internal Internalization
    34. 34. Your ResultsMSI (Motivation Sources Inventory)  Scoring SheetIntrinsic Process: 1____, 6____, 11____, 16____, 21____, 26____ (Sum) ___Instrumental: 2____, 7____, 12____, 17____, 22____, 27____ (Sum) _______SC External: 3____, 8____, 13____, 18____, 23____, 28____ (Sum) _______SC Internal: 4____, 9____, 14____, 19____, 24____, 29____ (Sum) _______Goal Internal: 5____, 10____, 15____, 20____, 25____, 30____ (Sum) _______
    35. 35. Your Results Dominant Source & Secondary Source Important Things to Remember…  Everyone has some amount of all 5 sources of motivation which can be in play at any time  Your sources may fluctuate a bit, but tend to be fairly steady.  There is not a good or bad motivation.  Only you know how accurately/honestly you answered the questions and therefore how accurate your results are.  This is NOT a developmental tool, but informational.
    36. 36. Motivation Matters Typical Approach  Use one‘s own sources of motivation to motivate others Inspiring Personal Approach  Be aware of your sources of motivation  Understand motivation differences of employees  Develop personalized motivation approaches
    37. 37. Motivating Others Case Study Review Case – 10 mins Small Group Discussion – 10 mins Large Group Report Out & Discussion – 20 mins
    38. 38. Case Study Part 1:  What are the dominant & secondary sources of motivation that are espoused by leaders in the case? Part 2:  If you were leading the organization and wanted to improve this situation,  How would you appeal to the dominant source of motivation?  How could you appeal to the secondary source of motivation?
    39. 39. Case Study Report Out Give a Brief Overview of the Case Part 1:  What is the dominant source of motivation?  What is the secondary source of motivation? Part 2:  How would you appeal to the dominant source of motivation?  How could you appeal to the secondary source of motivation?
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