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Sec 3 NA Coastal Protection Measures
 

Sec 3 NA Coastal Protection Measures

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    Sec 3 NA Coastal Protection Measures Sec 3 NA Coastal Protection Measures Presentation Transcript

    • Coastal Protection Measures
    • Different types of engineering
      • Hard engineering
      • Soft engineering
    • Hard engineering
      • Seawalls
        • Is usually made of concrete which absorbs the energy of the wave
        • Protect the coast against strong waves especially during storms
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    • Hard engineering
      • Breakwaters
        • Usually made of granite.
        • Creates a zone of shallow water between itself and the coast so that waves will break against it before reaching the coast.
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    • Hard engineering
      • Groynes
        • Is a low wall built at right angles to prevent materials from being transported away by the longshore drift.
        • This enables the transported materials to accumulate on the side of the groyne facing the longshore drift.
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    • Hard engineering
      • Gabions
        • Are used to protect river banks against erosion.
        • Similarly, these wire cages containing small rocks are used to form a wall to protect other coastal protection structures such as seawalls.
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    • Soft engineering
      • Stabilising coastal dunes
        • The dunes form as a result of the vegetation trapping and stabilising the sand.
        • The dunes extend several kilometres inland and to height of more than 100 metres.
        • Plant vegetation to trap and bind the sand together, preventing sand from being blown away.
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    • Soft engineering
      • Planting mangroves along the shore
        • Mangrove trees have prop roots or kneed roots that anchor the trees firmly in the muddy soil.
        • These roots also bind the loose soil and protect it from erosion.
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    • Soft engineering
      • Beach nourishment
        • This involve adding large amounts of sand to a beach that is being eroded.
        • Longshore drift removes the sand from the beach and carries it further down the coast.
        • People will bring in sand from other areas and deposit the sand onto the beach again.
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    • Soft engineering
      • Encourage growth of coral reefs
        • Coral reefs are masses of rock like substance called corals growing in shallow water.
        • They protect beaches against coastal erosion by reducing the speed of the waves approaching the coast.
        • Resulting the waves losing most of their energy.
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    • Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Hard Engineering Gabions Groynes Breakwaters Seawalls Disadvantages Advantages
    • Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Hard Engineering
      • Need regular maintenance
      • Weaken wave energy
      • Reduce coastal erosion
      Gabions
      • Erosion on parts of coast not protected by groynes
      • Protect coast from high energy waves
      • Encourage build-up of beach
      Groynes
      • Erosion on parts of coast not protected by breakwaters
      • Protect coast from high energy waves
      • Encourage build-up of beach
      Breakwaters
      • Erosion may lead to collapse of seawall
      • Costly
      • Absorb shock of waves
      • Reduce erosion of shore
      Seawalls Disadvantages Advantages
    • Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Soft Engineering
      • Can affect the depth of coasts – implications for port activities/coastal transportation
      • Helps trap sediments to form islands
      • Prevents coastal erosion
      Planting of mangroves
      • Affects investment opportunities in coastal areas
      • Allows nature to take its course
      • Avoids loss of lives and properties
      Relocation properties
      • Expensive
      • Affects marine ecosystem
      • Requires constant supply of new sand
      • Improves beach quality
      • Improves storm protection
      Beach nourishment Disadvantages Advantages
    • Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Soft Engineering -
      • Reduces wave energy
      • Encourages the growth of living organisms
      • Improves fishing opportunities
      Growth of coral reefs
      • Dunes are easily eroded if vegetation is not present
      • Vegetation growing on dunes anchor sand
      • Protects coast from sea
      Stabilizing dunes Disadvantages Advantages