Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Differentiate between hard engineering methods and soft engineering methods of coast...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Types of Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Hard engineering approach (structural a...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seawalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seawalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakwaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakwaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groynes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beach nourishment </li></ul></ul><ul...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation of properties </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting of mangroves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mangroves wit...
<ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilising dunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access points to ...
Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of coral reefs </li></ul></ul...
Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Hard Engineering...
Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Soft Engineering...
Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Soft Engineering...
Homework <ul><li>Briefly describe the difference between “hard engineering approaches” and “soft engineering approaches”. ...
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Sec 3 Coastal Management

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Transcript of "Sec 3 Coastal Management"

  1. 1. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Differentiate between hard engineering methods and soft engineering methods of coastal management. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the success of coastal protection measures. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Types of Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Hard engineering approach (structural approach): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the construction of physical structures to defend against erosive power of waves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Soft engineering approach (non-structural approach): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on planning and management so that both coastal areas and properties will not be damaged by erosion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aims at changing individual behaviour or attitudes towards coastal protection by encouraging minimal human interference. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seawalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are built along the coast to absorb the energy of waves before they can cause erosion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can be made of concrete, rocks or wood. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are especially effective in protecting cliffs from erosion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seawalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However they cannot prevent the backwash of the refracted waves from washing away beach materials beneath the walls. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This undermines the base of the seawalls and they collapse. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seawalls are costly to build and maintain. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakwaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It can be built with one end attached to the coast or away from the coast. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They break the force of high energy waves before they reach the shore. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When constructed offshore, it can create a zone of calm water behind them and allow deposition to occur, forming beaches. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakwaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Materials deposited behind the breakwater are protected but the zone located away from the breakwater is not. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It will not receive new supplies of materials and it will get eroded away. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groynes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are built at right angles to the shore to prevent longshore drift. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They absorb or reduce the energy of waves and cause materials to be deposited on the side of the groyne facing the longshore drift. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However erosion can occur at places not protected by it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are wired cages filled with crush rocks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are piled up along the shore to prevent or reduce coastal erosion by weakening wave energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It offers short-term protection (5 to 10 years). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The cages require regular maintenance and are easily corroded by sea water, trampling and vandalism. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Hard Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not properly maintained, the wire baskets can be unsightly and dangerous along the beach. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beach nourishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The constant replenishment of large quantities of sand to the beach system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The beach is extended seawards, which leads to the improvement of beach quality and storm protection. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is costly to transport large quantities of sand to fill up the beach and sufficient sand is needed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sand being eroded and transported away by waves and wind and can affect wildlife e.g. coral reefs at Waikiki Beach in Hawaii. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation of properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No building of properties are allowed in coastal areas vulnerable to costal erosion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The east coast of England has a “green line” policy that discourage building located beyond it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With the danger of increasing sea levels due to global warming, relocation is important to future coastal management. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting of mangroves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mangroves with their prop roots help trap sediments and reduce coastal erosion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As mangrove communities grow seawards, they extend the coastal land seawards. </li></ul></ul></ul>Coastal Protection Management
  13. 13. <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilising dunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access points to the beach should be controlled and designated so as not to be disturbed by human traffic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs and trees can be planted to stabilize them. Roots of trees reach downwards to tap groundwater and anchor the sand in the process. </li></ul></ul></ul>Coastal Protection Management
  14. 14. Coastal Protection Management <ul><li>Soft Engineering Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial reefs can be created by placing environmentally friendly and long-lived materials like steel or concrete on the sea floor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once the material is put in place, living organisms start to grow on it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man-made reefs are as productive as natural reefs in enhancing fishing opportunities and serve as undersea barriers to reduce impact of wave energy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Hard Engineering <ul><li>Need regular maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Weaken wave energy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce coastal erosion </li></ul>Gabions <ul><li>Erosion on parts of coast not protected by groynes </li></ul><ul><li>Protect coast from high energy waves </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage build-up of beach </li></ul>Groynes <ul><li>Erosion on parts of coast not protected by breakwaters </li></ul><ul><li>Protect coast from high energy waves </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage build-up of beach </li></ul>Breakwaters <ul><li>Erosion may lead to collapse of seawall </li></ul><ul><li>Costly </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb shock of waves </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce erosion of shore </li></ul>Seawalls Disadvantages Advantages
  16. 16. Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Soft Engineering <ul><li>Can affect the depth of coasts – implications for port activities/coastal transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Helps trap sediments to form islands </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents coastal erosion </li></ul>Planting of mangroves <ul><li>Affects investment opportunities in coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Allows nature to take its course </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids loss of lives and properties </li></ul>Relocation properties <ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Affects marine ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Requires constant supply of new sand </li></ul><ul><li>Improves beach quality </li></ul><ul><li>Improves storm protection </li></ul>Beach nourishment Disadvantages Advantages
  17. 17. Coastal Protection Management Comparison of the Effectiveness of Coastal Management Protection Measures – Soft Engineering - <ul><li>Reduces wave energy </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages the growth of living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Improves fishing opportunities </li></ul>Growth of coral reefs <ul><li>Dunes are easily eroded if vegetation is not present </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation growing on dunes anchor sand </li></ul><ul><li>Protects coast from sea </li></ul>Stabilizing dunes Disadvantages Advantages
  18. 18. Homework <ul><li>Briefly describe the difference between “hard engineering approaches” and “soft engineering approaches”. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three hard engineering measures of coastal protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three soft engineering measures of coastal protection. </li></ul><ul><li>With reference to examples, explain why soft engineering approaches of coastal protection may be more effective than hard engineering approaches of protection. </li></ul>

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