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    Lille2010markp Lille2010markp Presentation Transcript

    • Mark Proctor Project Lead ● The SkyNet funding bill is passed. ● The system goes online on August 4th, 1997. ● Human decisions are removed from strategic defense. ● SkyNet begins to learn at a geometric rate. ● It becomes self-aware at 2:14am Eastern time, August 29th ● In a panic, they try to pull the plug. ● And, Skynet fights back
    • Introduction Drools Drools Drools Drools Expert Flow Fusion Guvnor Business Logic integration Platform 2
    • Drools Expert
    • Learn by Example
    • Classes C a s h f lo w A cco u n t D a te d a te lo n g a c c o u n t N o d o u b le a m o u n t d o u b le b a la n c e in t t y p e lo n g a c c o u n t N o A c c o u n t in g P e r io d D a te s ta r t D a te e n d 5
    • Creating Views with Triggers date amount type accountNo AccountingPeriod 12-Jan-07 100 CREDIT 1 start end 2-Feb-07 200 DEBIT 1 01-Jan-07 31-Mar-07 18-May-07 50 CREDIT 1 9-Mar-07 75 CREDIT 1 Account accountNo balance 1 0 increase balance for AccountPeriod Credits decrease balance for AccountPeriod Debits select * from Account acc, select * from Account acc, Cashflow cf, AccountPeriod ap Cashflow cf, AccountPeriod ap where acc.accountNo == cf.accountNo and where acc.accountNo == cf.accountNo and cf.type == CREDIT cf.type == DEBIT cf.date >= ap.start and cf.date >= ap.start and cf.date <= ap.end cf.date <= ap.end trigger : acc.balance += cf.amount trigger : acc.balance -= cf.amount CashFlow CashFlow date amount type date amount type 12-Jan-07 100 CREDIT 2-Feb-07 200 DEBIT 9-Mar-07 75 CREDIT Account accountNo balance 1 -25 6
    • What is a Rule salience <int> Quotes on Rule names are agenda-group <string> optional if the rule name has no-loop <boolean> no spaces. auto-focus <boolean> duration <long> .... • rule “<name>”     <attribute> <value>     when         <LHS>     then         <RHS> RHS can be any valid java. Or MVEL. Other languages end could be added. 7
    • Imperative vs Declarative Methods that must specific passing of be called directly instances • public void helloMark(Person person) { Rules can never     if ( person.getName().equals( “mark” ) { be called directly        System.out.println( “Hello Mark” );     } Specific instances } cannot be passed. • rule “Hello Mark” LHS     when         Person( name == “mark” )     then         System.out.println( “Hello Mark” ); end RHS 8
    • What is a Pattern P a tte rn O b je c t T y p e F ie ld C o n s t r a in t F ie ld N a m e R e s t r ic t io n E v a lu a t o r V a lu e S h o w e r( te m p e r a tu re = = “ h o t” ) 9
    • Bringing it Together select * from Account acc, Cashflow cf, AccountPeriod ap where acc.accountNo == cf.accountNo and cf.type == CREDIT cf.date >= ap.start and cf.date <= ap.end Pattern trigger : acc.balance += cf.amount Pattern Binding field Binding rule “increase balance for AccountPeriod Credits” when Variable Restriction ap : AccountPeriod() acc : Account( $accountNo : accountNo ) CashFlow( type == CREDIT, accountNo == $accountNo, Literal Restriction date >= ap.start && <= ap.end, $ammount : ammount ) then acc.balance += $amount; Multri Restriction - Variable end Restriction field Binding Consequence (RHS) 10
    • Rules as a “view” date amount type accountNo AccountingPeriod 12-Jan-07 100 CREDIT 1 start end 2-Feb-07 200 DEBIT 1 01-Jan-07 31-Mar-07 18-May-07 50 CREDIT 1 9-Mar-07 75 CREDIT 1 Account accountNo balance 1 0 rule “increase balance for AccountPeriod rule “decrease balance for AccountPeriod Credits” Debits” when when ap : AccountPeriod() ap : AccountPeriod() acc : Account( $accountNo : accountNo ) acc : Account( $accountNo : accountNo ) CashFlow( type == CREDIT, CashFlow( type == DEBIT, accountNo == $accountNo, accountNo == $accountNo, date >= ap.start && <= ap.end, date >= ap.start && <= ap.end, $ammount : ammount ) $ammount : ammount ) then then acc.balance += $amount; acc.balance -= $amount; end CashFlow end CashFlow date amount type date amount type 12-Jan-07 100 CREDIT 2-Feb-07 200 DEBIT 9-Mar-07 75 CREDIT Account accountNo balance 1 -25 11
    • Patterns in more details CashFlow( type == “credit” ) $ap : AccountPeriod() CashFlow( date >= $ap.start ) $ap : AccountPeriod() CashFlow( date >= $ap.start && <= $ap.end ) $ap : AccountPeriod() CashFlow( type == “credit”, date >= $ap.start && <= $ap.end ) 12
    • More Pattern Examples Person( $age : age ) Person( age == ( $age + 1 ) ) Person( $age : age ) Person( eval( age == $age + 1 ) ) Person( $age1 : age ) Person( $age2 : age ) eval( $age2 == $age1 + 1 ) 13
    • More Pattern Examples Person(age > 30 && < 40 || hair == “black”) Person(age > 30 && < 40 || hair in (“black”, “brown”) ) Person( (age > 30 && < 40 && hair == “black”) || (age > 50 && hair == “grey”) ) Person(pets contain $rover ) Person(pets[’rover’].type == “dog”) Person(pets[0].type == “dog”) 14
    • What is a Production Rule System Codification of the business Repository of knowledge inserted Java instances Inference Engine Production Pattern Working Memory Matcher Memory (rules) (facts) Agenda insert Rules can change update on the fly retract 15
    • Production Rule System Approximated by SQL and Views T a b le s A cco unt A c c o u n t in g P e r io d C a s h f lo w O b je c t T y p e s A cco unt A c c o u n t in g P e r io d C a s h f lo w V ie w s v ie w 1 v ie w 2 V ie w m a in v ie w R u le s r u le 1 r u le 2 agenda agenda 16
    • Conflict Resolution with Salience Salience rule “Print blance for AccountPeriod” salience -50 when ap : AccountPeriod() acc : Account( ) then System.out.println( acc.accountNo + “ : “ acc.balance ); end Agenda 1 increase balance 2 decrease balance arbitrary 3 increase balance 4 print balance 17
    • RuleFlow rule “increase balance for AccountPeriod Credits” ruleflow-group “calculation” when ap : AccountPeriod() acc : Account( $accountNo : accountNo ) CashFlow( type == CREDIT, accountNo == $accountNo, date >= ap.start && <= ap.end, $ammount : ammount ) then acc.balance += $amount; end ruleflow-group rule “Print blance for AccountPeriod” ruleflow-group “report” when ap : AccountPeriod() acc : Account( ) then System.out.println( acc.accountNo + “ : “ acc.balance ); end 18
    • Two Phase System Determine possible rules to fire Agenda Evaluation Working Memory Action Rule insert modify Found Select Fire Rule Rule to Fire retract No Rule Found exit 19
    • Conditional Elements
    • From CE for Expressions not Bus( color = “red” ) exists Bus( color = “red” ) forall ( $bus : Bus( color == “red” ) ) forall ( $bus : Bus( floors == 2 ) Bus( this == $bus, color == “red” ) ) 21
    • From CE for Expressions
    • From CE for Expressions Using 'from' to reason over the nested list rule “Find all the pets for a given owner” when $owner : Person( name == “mark” ) Pet( name == “rover” ) from $owner.pets 23
    • From CE for Expressions 'from' can work on any expression, not just a nested field on a bound variable. rule “Find People for given zip code” when $zipCode : ZipCode() Person( ) from $hbn.getNamedQuery(“Find People”) .setParameters( [ “zipCode” : $zipCode ] ) .list() Hibernate session 24
    • Collect CE
    • Collect CE rule "accumulate" when $list : List( intValue > 100 ) from collect( Bus( color == "red" ) ) then print "red buses “ + $list; end 26
    • Accumulate CE
    • Accumulate CE rule "accumulate" when $sum : Number( intValue > 100 ) from accumulate( Bus( color == "red", $t : takings ) init( sum = 0 ), action( sum += $t ), result( sum ) ) then print "sum is “ + $sum; end 28
    • Accumulate CE rule "accumulate" when $sum : Number( intValue > 100 ) from accumulate( Bus( color == "red", $t : takings ) sum( $t ) ) then print "sum is “ + $sum; end 29
    • Accumulate CE Patterns and CE's can be chained with 'from' rule "collect" when $zipCode : ZipCode() $sum : Number( intValue > 100 ) from accumulate( Bus( color == "red", $t : takings ) from $hbn.getNamedQuery(“Find Buses”) .setParameters( [ “zipCode” : $zipCode ] ) .list(), sum( $t ) ) then 30
    • Timers Calendars
    • Timers rule “name” timer 1m30s when $l : Light( status == “on” ) then SendEmail( “turn the light off” ) rule “name” timer (int: 0 1m30) when $l : Light( status == “on” ) then SendEmail( “turn the light off” ) 32
    • Timers Field Name Mandatory? Allowed Values Allowed Special Characters Seconds YES 0-59 ,-*/ Minutes YES 0-59 ,-*/ Hours YES 0-23 ,-*/ Day of month YES 1-31 ,-*?/LW Month YES 1-12 or JAN-DEC ,-*/ Day of week YES 1-7 or SUN-SAT ,-*?/L# Year NO empty, 1970-2099 ,-*/ rule “name” timer ( cron: 0 0/15 * * * * ) when $l : Light( status == “on” ) then sendEmail( “turn the light off” ) 33
    • Calendars rule "weekdays are high priority" calendars "weekday" timer (int:0 1h) when Alarm() then send( "priority high - we have an alarm” ); end rule "weekend are low priority" calendars "weekend" timer (int:0 4h) when Alarm() then send( "priority low - we have an alarm” ); end 34
    • Truth Maintenance Inference
    • TMS and Inference rule "Issue Child Bus Pass" Couples the logic when $p : Person( age < 16 ) then insert(new ChildBusPass( $p ) ); end rule "Issue Adult Bus Pass" What happens when the Child when stops being 16? $p : Person( age >= 16 ) then insert(new AdultBusPass( $p ) ); end 36
    • TMS and Inference  Bad ● Monolithic ● Leaky ● Brittle integrity - manual maintenance 37
    • TMS and Inference  A rule “logically” inserts an object  When the rule is no longer true, the object is retracted. when de-couples the logic $p : Person( age < 16 ) then logicalInsert( new IsChild( $p ) ) end Maintains the truth by when automatically retracting $p : Person( age >= 16 ) then logicalInsert( new IsAdult( $p ) ) end 38
    • TMS and Inference rule "Issue Child Bus Pass" when $p : Person( ) IsChild( person =$p ) then logicalInsert(new ChildBusPass( $p ) ); end rule "Issue Adult Bus Pass" The truth maintenance cascades when $p : Person( age >= 16 ) IsAdult( person =$p ) then logicalInsert(new AdultBusPass( $p ) ); end 39
    • TMS and Inference rule "Issue Child Bus Pass" when $p : Person( ) not( ChildBusPass( person == $p ) ) then requestChildBusPass( $p ); The truth maintenance cascades End 40
    • TMS and Inference  Good ● De-couple knowledge responsibilities ● Encapsulate knowledge ● Provide semantic abstractions for those encapsulation ● Integrity robustness – truth maintenance 41
    • Tooling
    • Guided Editor 43
    • Interactive Debugging 44
    • Decision Tables 45
    • DSLs 46
    • DSLs 47
    • Rule Flow 48
    • Drools Fusion
    • Scalability Rule engines do not scale for CEP. They have a single point of insertion and are single threaded, CEP has concurrent streams of events. session.insert( event ) ; $c : Custumer( type == “VIP” ) BuyOrderEvent( customer == $c ) Single Point of entry Patterns, evaluate facts sequentially in a single thread. 50
    • Scalability So lets allow multiple named entry points for those streams EntryPoint entryPoint = session.getEntryPoint( “Home Broker Stream” ); entryPoint.insert( event ) ; So now we can insert When not specified uses different streams the “default” entry-point concurrently $c : Custumer( type == “VIP ) BuyOrderEvent( customer == $c ) from entry-point “Home Broker Stream” Patterns can now optional specify their entry-point. 51
    • Automatic Life-Cycle Management All Fact life-cycles must be managed by the user, so retractions are manual. declare StockTick Just use the declare statement to @role( event ) declare a type as an event and it end will be retracted when it is no longer needed declare StockTick @role( event ) @timestamp( timestampAttr ) companySymbol : String stockPrice : double The declare statement can also timestampAttr : long specify an internal model, that end external objects/xml/csv map on to. We support Smooks and JAXB 52
    • Operators Rule engines do not have rich enough set of temporal comparison operators BackAckEvent must occur between 1s and 10s 'after' $c : Custumer( type == “VIP ) BuyOrderEvent $oe : BuyOrderEvent( customer == $c ) from entry-point “Home Broker Stream” BuyAckEvent( relatedEvent == $oe.id, this after[1s, 10s] $oe ) from entry-point “Stock Trader Stream” The Full set of Operators are supported ● coincides ● overlaps ● starts ● before ● overlappedby ● startedby ● after ● during ● finishes ● meets ● includes ● finishedby ● metby 53
    • Operators 54
    • Operators $c : Custumer( type == “VIP ) $oe : BuyOrderEvent( customer == $c ) from entry-point “Home Broker Stream” not BuyAckEvent( relatedEvent == $oe.id, this after[1s, 10s] $oe ) from entry-point “Stock Trader Stream” Existing Drools 'not' Conditional Elements can be used to detect non- occurrence of events 55
    • Sliding time windows Rule engines react to events happening now, there is no temporal understanding of changes over time. StockTicker( symbol == “RHAT” ) over window:time( 5s ) 5s StockTicker( symbol == “RHAT” ) over window:length( 1000 ) 1000 tickers That isn't much without the ability to deal with aggregations, rules engines suck. 56
    • Aggregations Rule Engines do not deal with aggregations Over 5 seconds $n : Number( intValue > 100 ) from accumulate( $s : StockTicker( symbol == “RHAT” ) over window:time( 5s ), average( $s.price ) ) Aggregate ticker price The pattern 'Number' for RHAT over last 5 reasons 'from' the seconds accumulate result $n : accumulate( $s : StockTicker( symbol == “RHAT” ) over window:time( 5s ), average( $s.price ) > 100 ) We can use some sugar to reduce verbosity 57
    • Drools Flow
    • Drools Flow A workflow engine combining processes and  Integration rules ● From loose coupling (decision services) ● To advance integration (process rules)  Unification ● Rules and processes are different types of business knowledge assets ● Infrastructure ● Timers/Schedulers ● Testing ● Communication/Services ● Tooling ● IDE ● repository, management ● Auditing ● 59
    • Truth Maintenance Inference
    • Rules and processes generic ? Decision Services SCOPE Process specific Rules tightly coupled COUPLING loosely coupled 61
    • Business Logic Lifecycle 62
    • Example 63
    • RuleFlowGroup Workflow can control my rules? 64
    • RuleFlowGroup Rule Flow Group 65
    • RuleFlowGroup 66
    • Constraints Java code constraint 67
    • Constraints Rules can control my workflow? LHS “when” Rule Constraint 68
    • Example  Business decisions are externalized using a decision service rule rule Decision1 when Decision1 rule Decision1 // conditions when when then // conditions // // actions then end conditions // actions end then // actions end 69
    • Example  What if there is a lot of business logic like this? rule Decision1 rule Decision1 rule when Decision1 rule when Decision1 rule rule rule rule Decision1 // conditions // conditionsrule Decision1 rule Decision1 when Decision1 when Decision1 rule rule when Decision1 rule rule Decision1 then // conditions rule rule conditions Decision1 when Decision1 rule Decision1 Decision1 then // when Decision1 rule rule Decision1 // conditionswhen when rule Decision1 when // conditions // conditions when when then // conditionswhen Decision1 when when Decision1 // actions rule actions // Decision1 then // conditions when when then // conditions// conditions end // conditionsthen // conditionsthen // conditions // end when when // actions then // actions then when when // actions then then // conditions then // conditions// actions then // // // actions then end end conditions// actions // // actions end // // actions conditions conditions // actions then // actions end then // actions end // actions end then end end actions end end actions end conditions // conditions // then end then // end then end then // // actions // // actions actions end actions actions end end end end 70
    • Flow of Control Process Engine Rules Engine 71
    • Inversion of Control Process Engine Agenda Rules Engine 72
    • Self monitoring and adaptive declare ProcessStartedEvent @role( event ) end rule "Number of process instances above threshold" when Number( nbProcesses : intValue > 1000 ) from accumulate( e: ProcessStartedEvent( processInstance.processId == "com.sample.order.OrderProcess" ) over window:size(1h), count(e) ) then System.err.println( "WARNING: Nb of order processes in the last hour > 1000: " + nbProcesses ); 73
    • Domain Specific Processes 74
    • Domain Specific Processes 75
    • Integrated debug and audit 76
    • Unified API Definitions Runtime Language
    • Definitions jBPM File file = new File (“.....”); // file to XML process definition ProcessDefinition processDefinition = ProcessDefinition.parseXmlString( IoUtils.FileToString( file ) ); ProcessInstance processInstance = new ProcessInstance(processDefinition); Jess Rete engine = new Rete(); FileReader file = new FileReader("myfile.clp"); Jesp parser = new Jesp(file, engine); parser.parse(false); Esper EPServiceProvider epService = EPServiceProviderManager.getDefaultProvider(); EPStatement countStmt = admin.createEPL( "...." ); countStmt.start(); 78
    • Definitions Drools Flow KnowledegBuilder kbuilder = KnowledgeBuilderFactory.newKnowledgeBulider(); kbuilder.addResource( ResourceFactory.newClassPathResource( “myflow.drf”, ResourceType.DRF ); If ( kbuilder.hasErrors() ) { log.error( kbuilder.hasErrors().toString() ); } KnowledgeBase kbase = KnowledgeBaseFactory.newKnowledgeBase(); kbase.addKnowledgePackages( kbase.getKnowledgePackages() ); 79
    • Definitions Drools Expert KnowledegBuilder kbuilder = KnowledgeBuilderFactory.newKnowledgeBulider(); kbuilder.addResource( ResourceFactory.newClassPathResource( “myrules.drl”, ResourceType.DRL ); If ( kbuilder.hasErrors() ) { log.error( kbuilder.hasErrors().toString() ); } KnowledgeBase kbase = KnowledgeBaseFactory.newKnowledgeBase(); kbase.addKnowledgePackages( kbase.getKnowledgePackages() ); 80
    • Drools Integration Deployment Descriptors <change-set> <add> <resource source='classpath:myapp/data/myflow.drf' type='DRF' /> <resource source='http:myapp/data/myrules.drl' type='DRL' /> <resource source='classpath:data/IntegrationExampleTest.xls' type="DTABLE"> <decisiontable-conf input-type="XLS" worksheet-name="Tables_2" /> </resource> <add> </change-set> KnowledegBuilder kbuilder = KnowledgeBuilderFactory.newKnowledgeBulider(); kbuilder.addResource( ResourceFactory.newFileResource( “changeset.xml”, ResourceType.ChangeSet ); 81
    • Unified Event Model
    • Mixins Interface Markers
    • Stateful Knowledge Session 85
    • Knowledge Runtime 86
    • Coming in 5.1  BPMN2 (80% of Workflow)  Integration ● OSGi ready ● Spring ● Camel  Seamless Remoting  Simulation/Testing  New Rete Algorithm “true modify” 87
    • Spring + camel from("direct:test-with-session"). to("drools:sm/ksession1?dataFormat=drools-xstream"); 88
    • Questions? • Dave Bowman: All right, HAL; I'll go in through the emergency airlock. • HAL: Without your space helmet, Dave, you're going to find that rather difficult. • Dave Bowman: HAL, I won't argue with you anymore! Open the doors! • HAL: Dave, this conversation can serve no purpose anymore. Goodbye. Joshua: Greetings, Professor Falken. Stephen Falken: Hello, Joshua. Joshua: A strange game. The only winning move is not to play. How about a nice game of chess? 89