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  9. 11. SAFETY & ENGINEERING. M. FAISAL 07 - MCT - 35 M. ADIL 07 - MCT - 42 M. SOHAIL 07 - MCT - 17
  10. 12. WHAT IS SAFETY??? <ul><li>State of being &quot;safe&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The condition of being protected against </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other types or consequences of failure, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harm  or any other event which could be considered non-desirable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Types of safety <ul><li>Normative safety </li></ul><ul><li>Substantive safety </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived safety </li></ul>
  12. 14. Normative safety <ul><li>Normative safety  is a term used to describe products or designs that meet applicable design standards. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Substantive safety <ul><li>Substantive safety  means that the real-world safety history is favorable, whether or not standards are met. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Perceived safety <ul><li>Perceived safety  refers to the level of comfort of users. For example,  traffic signals  are perceived as safe, yet under some circumstances, they can increase  traffic crashes  at an intersection. Traffic  roundabouts  have a generally favorable safety record, yet often make drivers nervous. </li></ul>
  15. 17. WHAT IS SAFETY ENGG.?? <ul><li>Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety engineering assures that a life-critical system behaves as needed even when pieces fail. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>A failure is &quot;the inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements&quot;, while a fault is &quot;a defect in a device or component, for example: a short circuit or a broken wire&quot;. </li></ul>
  17. 19. FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS <ul><li>Failure mode and effects analysis &quot; (FMEA), </li></ul><ul><li>Considers what happens if each block of the diagram fails. </li></ul><ul><li>Draws up a table in which failures are paired with their effects and an evaluation of the effects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The design of the system is then corrected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table adjusted until the system is not known to have unacceptable problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is very helpful to have several engineers review the failure modes and effects analysis. </li></ul>
  18. 21. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY!! <ul><li>  </li></ul>Safety means first aid to the uninjured
  19. 23. SAFETY..!! The Reason why people sleep well… <ul><li>Any active process is more or less associated with the risk:- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of injuring or killing people, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of destroying nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of damaging investments. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Risks and responses <ul><li>Safety is generally interpreted as implying a real and significant impact on risk of death, injury or damage to property. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common individual response to perceived safety issues is insurance, which compensates for or provides restitution in the case of damage or loss. </li></ul>
  21. 25. System safety and reliability engineering <ul><li>System safety  and  reliability  engineering is an engineering discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous changes in technology, environmental regulation and public safety concerns make the analysis of complex  safety-critical  systems more and more demanding. </li></ul>
  22. 29. GENERAL & PARTICULAR FACTS. <ul><li>Who built Titanic? </li></ul><ul><li>Where was she built? </li></ul><ul><li>What date did Titanic crash into an iceberg? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it strange that Titanic collided with an iceberg? </li></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>The designers were </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Pirrie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Andrews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why was TITANIC drowned ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Captain E. J. Smith said years before the Titanic's voyage, </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I cannot imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder . Modern shipbuilding has gone beyond that.&quot; </li></ul>
  24. 31. PEC CODE OF CONDUCT <ul><li>Article 4 </li></ul><ul><li>A member shall have utmost regard for the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of his professional duties and for that purpose he shall </li></ul><ul><li>regard his duty to the public welfare as paramount; </li></ul><ul><li>not undertake, prepare, sign, approve or authenticate any plan, design or specifications which are not safe for the safety, health, welfare of a person or persons, or are not in conformity with the accepted engineering standards and if any client or an employer insists on such unprofessional conduct, he shall notify the authorities concerned and withdraw form further service on the project; and </li></ul><ul><li>point out the consequences to his client or the employer if his engineering judgment is over-ruled by any non-technical person. </li></ul>
  25. 32. CODE OF CONDUCT contd… <ul><li>Article 7 </li></ul><ul><li>A member shall express an opinion of an engineering subject only when founded on adequate knowledge, experience and honest conviction. </li></ul>
  26. 33. PEC CODE OF CONDUCT contd.. <ul><li>Article 8 </li></ul><ul><li>A member shall undertake engineering assignments only when he possesses proper qualifications, training and experience. He shall engage or advise for engaging of the experts and specialists whenever the client's or employers' interest are best served by such service. </li></ul><ul><li>A member shall not discourage the necessity of other appropriate engineering services, designs, plans or specifications or limit-free competition by specifying materials of particular make or model. </li></ul>
  27. 34. PEC CODE OF CONDUCT contd… <ul><li>Article 18 </li></ul><ul><li>A member shall report unethical professional practices of an engineer or a member with substantiating data to the Pakistan Engineering Council and appear as a witness, if required. </li></ul>
  28. 35. Safety Measures <ul><li>Root cause analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to identify causes of a system failure and correct deficiencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual examination for dangerous situations  such as emergency exits blocked because they are being used as storage areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual examination for flaws  such as cracks, peeling, loose connections. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 36. SAFETY MEASURES CONTD… <ul><li>Chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray analysis to see inside a sealed object such as a weld, a cement wall or an airplane outer skin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Destructive testing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( Engineering ) Intentional operation of equipment until it fails, to reveal design weaknesses. A method of testing a material that degrades the sample under investigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress testing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects a person or product to stresses in excess of those the person or product is designed to handle, to determining the &quot;breaking point&quot;. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 37. OTHER METHODS…. <ul><ul><li>Implementation of  standard protocols and procedures  so that activities are conducted in a known way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of employees, vendors, product users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction manuals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional videos  demonstrating proper use of products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examination of activities by specialists  to minimize physical stress or increase productivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 38. <ul><li>Government regulation   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>so suppliers know what standards their product is expected to meet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>so suppliers know what level of quality is expected. Industry regulation is often imposed to avoid potential government regulation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-imposed regulation  of various types. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statements of Ethics  by industry organizations or an individual company so its employees know what is expected of them </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 39. <ul><li>Drug testing </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examinations   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine whether a person has a physical condition that would create a problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic evaluations  of employees, departments, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geological surveys  to determine whether land or water sources are polluted, how firm the ground is at a potential building site, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>