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Nuclear Fission Reactor

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  • 1. Fundamentals of Mechatronics Nuclear Fission Reactor presentation...
  • 2. Group Member
    • Usman Tariq 07-MCT-14
    • Badar Ali 07-MCT-21
    • Jamal Abdullah 07-MCT- 47
  • 3. Nuclear Fission Reactor
    • A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb , in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explosion.
    • The existence of this phenomenon was discovered in 1972 by French physicist Francis Perrin .
  • 4. The Basics of Nuclear Energy
    • When an atom of uranium-235 is hit by a neutron there is a high probability of a violent reaction, but if the atom is one of uranium-238 the probability is very low. The reaction is known as nuclear fission or splitting of the atom.
  • 5.
    • continuation….
    • Therefore we need to have Uranium 235 in its pure form to have Fission reactrions.
    • The fission-product atoms contain excess energy, most as motion which rapidly becomes heat, and some of which is emitted over time as radiation , i.e., the atoms are radioactive.
    • In addition to the fission products, two or three neutrons are emitted when an atom fissions. If one of these causes fission in another fissile atom more neutrons are emitted, one of which could possibly cause a further fission, and so on in a chain reaction.
  • 6. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    • The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors.
    • Uranium is a relatively common element that is found throughout the world. It is mined in a number of countries and must be processed before it can be used as fuel for a nuclear reactor.
    • Electricity is created by using the heat generated in a nuclear reactor to produce steam and drive a turbine connected to a generator.
    • Fuel removed from a reactor, after it has reached the end of its useful life, can be reprocessed to produce new fuel.
  • 7. Stages of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
  • 8.
    • The nuclear fuel cycle uses uranium in different chemical and physical forms. Stages of this cycle typically include the following:
    • Mining (extracting from ore) and milling
    • Conversion to uranium hexafluoride
    • Enrichment
    • Fuel fabrication into uranium oxide
    • Use of the fuel in nuclear power, research, or naval propulsion reactors
    • Interim Storage
    • Reprocessing (currently not done in the U.S.)
    • High-Level Waste
  • 9. Uranium Milling
    • A uranium mill is a chemical plant that extracts uranium from mined ore.
    • In a mill, uranium is extracted from the crushed and ground-up ore by leaching, in which either a strong acid or a strong alkaline solution is used to dissolve the uranium.
  • 10. Enrichment
    • Enriching uranium increases the amount of "middle-weight" and “light-weight” uranium atoms.
    • There are two enrichment processes in large scale commercial use, each of which uses uranium hexafluoride as feed:
    • (a) gaseous diffusion
    • (b) gas centrifuge
  • 11. Reactor A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb , in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explosion. Control room of a Nuclear Reactor
  • 12. Reprocessing
    • The uranium from reprocessing, which typically contains a slightly higher concentration of U-235 than occurs in nature, can be reused as fuel after conversion and enrichment.
    • The plutonium can be directly made into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, in which uranium and plutonium oxides are combined
  • 13. Material balance in the nuclear fuel cycle 27 tonnes containing 240kg plutonium, 23 t uranium (0.8% U-235), 720kg fission products, also transuranics.   Used fuel 8640 million kWh (8.64 TWh) of electricity at full output   Reactor operation 27 tonnes UO 2 (with 24 t enriched U)   Fuel fabrication 35 tonnes UF 6 (with 24 t enriched U) - balance is 'tails'   Enrichment 288 tonnes UF 6 (with 195 t U)   Conversion 230 tonnes of uranium oxide concentrate (with 195 t U)   Milling: 20 000 tonnes of 1% uranium ore   Mining:
  • 14. Fuel Cycle
  • 15. Nuclear reactor technology
    • A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb , in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explosion.
  • 16. Reactor types……….Classifications
    • Classification by phase of fuel
    • Solid fueled
    • Fluid fueled
    • Gas Fuled
    • Classification by generation
    • Generation I reactor
    • Generation II reactor
    • Generation III reactor
    • Generation IV reactor
  • 17. Generation IV reactors
    • Generation IV reactors are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched.
  • 18. Categories of IV Generation Reactors
    • Following are the main categories of iv generation Reactors;
    • 1. Gas cooled fast reactor
    • 2.Lead cooled fast reactor
    • 3.Molten salt reactor
    • 4.Sodium-cooled fast reactor
    • 5.Supercritical water reactor
    • 6.Very high temperature reactor
  • 19. a) Thermal Reactors
    • 1.Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR)
    • The Very High Temperature Reactor concept utilizes a graphite-moderated core with a once-through uranium fuel cycle.
  • 20.
    • 2.Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR)
    • The Supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is a concept that uses supercritical water as the working fluid. SCWRs are basically light water reactors (LWR) operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct, once-through cycle.
  • 21.
    • 3.Molten Salt Reactor (MSR)
    • A molten salt reactor is a type of nuclear reactor where the coolant is a molten salt. There have been many designs put forward for this type of reactor and a few prototypes built.
  • 22. (b) Fast reactors
    • 1.Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR)
    • The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. The reactor is helium-cooled, with an outlet temperature f 850 °C and using a direct Brayton cycle gas turbine for high thermal efficiency.
  • 23.
    • 2.Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR)
    • The SFR is a project that builds on two closely related existing projects, the LMFBR and the Integral Fast Reactor.The reactor design uses an unmoderated core running on fast neutrons, designed to allow any transuranic isotope to be consumed (and in some cases used as fuel).
  • 24.
    • 3.Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)
    • The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor features a fast-neutron-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic (LBE) liquid-metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. Options include a range of plant ratings, including a "battery" of 50 to 150 MW of electricity that features a very long refueling interval, a modular system rated at 300 to 400 MW, and a large monolithic plant option at 1,200 MW. (
  • 25.
    • Thanks You Very Much.
    • … Allah Hafiz…