Fax Machine


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Fax Machine

  1. 2. <ul><li>Submitted To: </li></ul><ul><li>Engr.Hafiz Khuram Ali </li></ul><ul><li> Submitted By: </li></ul><ul><li>Ehtesham Ayoub 07-MCT-32 </li></ul><ul><li>Hafiz Abd-Ur-Rauf 07-MCT-19 </li></ul><ul><li>Farhan Nawaz 07-MCT-39 </li></ul>FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHATRONICS
  3. 4. CONTENTS <ul><li>What is fax? </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Data transmission rate </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Huffman </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Read </li></ul><ul><li>Matsushita White line Skip </li></ul><ul><li>Working of fax machine </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>How to Use, Advantages and Disadvantages. </li></ul>
  4. 5. WHAT IS FAX ? <ul><li>Fax -“facsimile &quot; (Latin word) “make copy”- is a process of converting optical images into electrical signals for transmission over communication systems (phone line, internet etc). </li></ul>
  5. 6. Principal: <ul><li>Image convert into electrical signals by a mechanical phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Signal convert to a hard copy by a mechanical phenomena. </li></ul>
  6. 7. History: <ul><li>In 1850, a London inventor named F. C. Blakewell received a patent what he called a &quot;copying telegraph&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1926, RCA invented the Radiophoto that faxed by using radio broadcasting technology. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1947, Alexander Muirhead invented a very successful fax machine. </li></ul><ul><li>On March 4, 1955, the first radio fax transmission was sent across the continent. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Overview: <ul><li>Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;fax machine&quot; usually consists of the following parts; </li></ul><ul><li>Image Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Phone Line. </li></ul>
  8. 9. 1- Image Scanner: <ul><li>The scanner converts the content </li></ul><ul><li>printed on a physical document </li></ul><ul><li>into a digital image . Image and </li></ul><ul><li>text capture (optical character </li></ul><ul><li>recognition or OCR) allow you to </li></ul><ul><li>save information. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Modem: </li></ul><ul><li>The modem sends the image </li></ul><ul><li>data over a phone line to </li></ul><ul><li>another device. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>3- Printer: </li></ul><ul><li>The printer at the far end produces a copy of the transmitted document. </li></ul><ul><li>4- Phone Line: </li></ul><ul><li>The phone receive and sends </li></ul><ul><li>signals of documents into </li></ul><ul><li>digital forms. </li></ul>
  10. 11. CAPABI LITIES: <ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Data transmission rate </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><li>1. GROUP: </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of groups. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Analog </li></ul><ul><li>II.Digital </li></ul>
  11. 12. 2.CLASS: <ul><li>Computer modems are often designated by a particular fax class, which indicates how much processing is offloaded from the computer's CPU to the fax modem. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Data transmission rate: </li></ul><ul><li>Different telephone line modulation techniques are used by fax machines, and will use the data rate in kbits/s. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 4.Compression: <ul><li>Two compression methods for decreasing the amount of data that needs to be transmitted between the fax machines to transfer the image. </li></ul><ul><li>The two methods are: </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Huffman (MH) </li></ul><ul><li>Modified READ (MR) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Modified Huffman: <ul><li>Modified Huffman (MH) is a codebook-based run-length encoding scheme optimized to efficiently compress white space. </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Read: </li></ul><ul><li>This encodes the first scanned line using MH. The next line is compared to the first, the differences determined, and then the differences are encoded and transmitted. </li></ul><ul><li>E ffective as most lines differ little from their predecessor. </li></ul><ul><li>The limited number of lines is two for 'Standard' resolution faxes, and four for 'Fine' resolution faxes. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Matsushita White line Skip: <ul><li>A proprietary compression scheme employed on Panasonic fax machines is Matsushita White line Skip (MWS). </li></ul><ul><li>It is operative only when two Panasonic machines are communicating with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Detects blank scanned areas between lines of text & convert into the data space of a single character. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Basic Idea Behind Fax Machines: <ul><li>Rotating Drums: </li></ul><ul><li>Attaching the paper with drums. And paper move with rotating arms of drums. </li></ul>
  16. 17. PHOTO SENSOR: <ul><li>Photo sensor able to focus in and look at a very small spot on the piece of paper. And also sense white and colored parts of the sending document paper. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Working of Modern Fax Machines: <ul><li>The main parts of working of a modern fax machine having the following mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing the document . </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding the document. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of document. </li></ul><ul><li>Marking the paper. </li></ul>
  18. 19. The scanning process: The scanner in a fax machine looks at one line of the sheet of paper. The scan line is shown here in red. It sees a group of black and white spots, shown blown up in the red rectangle at the bottom of the figure. It encodes the pattern of spots and sends them through the phone line.
  19. 20. <ul><li>Internet fax. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless fax. </li></ul>Alternatives:
  20. 21. Internet Fax:
  21. 22. Wireless Fax:
  22. 23. Characteristics of A Fax Machine: <ul><li>A good fax machine should have following characteristic; </li></ul><ul><li>It should communicate to other fax machines. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a horizontal resolution of 203 pixels per inch (8 pixels/mm). </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><ul><li>It has three different vertical resolutions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard : 98 lines per inch (3.85 lines/mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine: 196 lines per inch (7.7 lines/mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super fine (not officially a Group 3 standard, but fairly common): 391 lines per inch (15.4 lines/mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can transmit at a maximum data rate of 14,400 bits per second (bps) to minimum range of 2,400 bps if there is a lot of noise on the line. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Sending of a Fax: <ul><li>Turn ON. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain the number of the destination </li></ul><ul><li>Gather documents you want to send. </li></ul><ul><li>A cover sheet with following instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient’s name & fax NO. </li></ul><ul><li>Sender’s name & phone NO. </li></ul>
  25. 26. How to Receive A Fax? <ul><li>Fax machine has enough ink in its toner cartridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Enough printer paper loaded in paper tray. </li></ul><ul><li>Then phone will ring. Don’t pick up. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for the Handshake tones. </li></ul><ul><li>It automatically begin to print each page. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the cover sheet. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Trouble Shooting of Fax: <ul><li>Image quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Image can be too dark or too light. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaking of toner. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper jam. </li></ul><ul><li>Document Feeder </li></ul><ul><li>Printing area. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Check dial tone & also phone line. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Advantages: <ul><li>Faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantaneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be delivered at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>No need to give commands of printing separately on receiving the fax document. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Disadvantages: <ul><li>Need a separate space for the machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs a telephone line. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs power/electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Requires paper for receiving and sending faxes </li></ul><ul><li>Aging of papers could lead to difficulties in managing records. </li></ul>
  29. 30. THANKS