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  1. 1. Introduction to Kernel Prepared by Chandni Shah
  2. 2. Introduction to KernelTopics  Kernel Architecture  Introduction To System Concepts  File System  Process  Kernel Data Structures  System Administration
  3. 3. Kernel Architecture (UNIX) User program Library User level system call interface kernel level Inter process File Subsystem communication Buffer Cache Process Control Scheduler Subsystem Memorycharacter block Managemen t Device driver Hardware control kernel level hardware User level
  4. 4. Overview of File Subsystem Every file has a I-Node(index node) It contains details like disk layout of file data ,owner, access permissions and access times. I-node is unique to each file in Unix
  5. 5. What is an inode? 5 An inode (index node) is a control structure that contains key information needed by the OS to access a particular file. Several file names may be associated with a single inode, but each file is controlled by exactly ONE inode. On the disk, there is an inode table that contains the inodes of all the files in the file system. When a file is opened, its inode is brought into main memory and stored in a memory-resident inode table.
  6. 6. Data Structure for File Handling Inode Table  List of all I-nodes Global File table.  global to the kernel e.g. the byte offset in the file where the users next read/write will start  the access rights allowed to the opening process. Process File Descriptor table.  local to every process  contains information like the identifiers of the files opened by the process.  Whenever, a process creates a file, it gets an index from this table primarily known as File Descriptor.
  7. 7. Data Structure for File Handling Inode tables interact with user process specific file descriptor tables and global file tables in Unix File System to facilitate the file handling.
  8. 8. Interaction between tables with an Example Example: Process A: fd1 = open("/var/file1", O_RDONLY); fd2 = open("/var/file2", O_RDWR); fd3 = open("/var/file1", O_WRONLY); Process B: fd1 = open("/var/file1", O_RDONLY); fd2 = open("/var/file3", O_RDONLY);
  9. 9. File Descriptors, File Table and Inode table
  10. 10. Explanation of figure Each open() returns a file descriptor to the process, and the corresponding entry in the user file descriptor table points to a unique entry in the global file table even though a file(/var/ file1) is opened more then once. These global file table entries map to the in-core inode table entry. Every opened file has a unique entry in the global file table and the user file descriptor table but kernel keeps only single entry per file in the in-core inode table. Separate entries are created in user file descriptor and global file table, but only the reference count is increased in the inode table. All the system calls related to file handling use these tables for data manipulation.
  11. 11. File System A file system is consists of a sequence of logical blocks (512/1024 byte etc.) A file system has the following structure: Boot Block Super Block Inode List Data Blocks
  12. 12. File System: Boot Block The beginning of the file system Contains bootstrap code to load the operating system Initialize the operating system Typically occupies the first sector of the disk
  13. 13. File System: Super Block Describes the state of a file system Describes the size of the file system  How many files it can store Where to find free space on the file system Other information
  14. 14. File System: Inode List Inodes are used to access disk files. Inodes maps the disk files For each file there is an inode entry in the inode list block Inode list also keeps track of directory structure
  15. 15. File System: Data Block Starts at the end of the inode list Contains disk files An allocated data block can belong to one and only one file in the file system
  16. 16. Processes(1) A process is the execution of a program A process is consists of text (machine code), data and stack Many process can run simultaneously as kernel schedules them for execution Several processes may be instances of one program A process reads and writes its data and stack sections, but it cannot read or write the data and stack of other processes A process communicates with other processes and the rest of the world via system calls
  17. 17. Processes(2) Kernel has a process table that keeps tract of all active processes Each entry in the process table contains pointers to the text, data, stack and the U Area of a process. All processes in UNIX system, except the very first process (process 0) which is created by the system boot code, are created by the fork system call
  18. 18. Kernel Support for ProcessKernel Process Kernel Region Table A Process Table Per Process Region Table Text File Descriptor Table Data Stack U Area
  19. 19. Process: Region Table Region table entries describes the attributes of the region, such as whether it contains text or data, whether it is shared or private The extra level from the per process region table to kernel region table allows independent processes to share regions.
  20. 20. Process: U Area U Area is the extension of process table entry. Fields of process table entry:  State field  User ID (UID) Fields of U Area  Pointer to process table entry  File descriptors of all open files  Current directory and current root  I/O parameters  Process and file size limit Kernel can directly access fields of the U Area of the executing process but not of the U Area of other processes
  21. 21. Process Context The context of a process is its state:  Text, data( variable), register  Process region table, U Area,  User stack and kernel stack When executing a process, the system is said to be executing in the context of the process.
  22. 22. Context Switch When the kernel decides that it should execute another process, it does a context switch, so that the system executes in the context of the other process When doing a context switch, the kernel saves enough information so that it can later switch back to the first process and resume its execution.
  23. 23. Mode of Process Execution(1) The UNIX process runs in two modes:  User mode  Can access its own instructions and data, but not kernel instruction and data  Kernel mode  Can access kernel and user instructions and data When a process executes a system call, the execution mode of the process changes from user mode to kernel mode
  24. 24. Mode of Process Execution(2) When moving from user to kernel mode, the kernel saves enough information so that it can later return to user mode and continue execution from where it left off. Mode change is not a context switch, just change in mode.
  25. 25. Process StatesProcess states are:  The process is running in user mode  The process is running in kernel mode  The process is not executing, but it is ready to run as soon as the scheduler chooses it  The process is sleeping  Such as waiting for I/O to complete
  26. 26. Process State Transition(1) user running 1 system call return or interrupt Interrupt return kernel running 2 sleep schedule processasleep 3 ready to run 4 wakeup context switch permissible
  27. 27. Process State Transition(2) The kernel allows a context switch only when a process moves from the state kernel running to the state asleep Process running in kernel mode cannot be preempted by other processes.
  28. 28. Fork System Call(1) When a process is created by fork, it contains duplicate copies of the text, data and stack segments of its parent Also it has a File Descriptor Table (FDT) that contains references to the same opened files as its parent, such that they both share the same file pointer to each opened file
  29. 29. Fork System Call(2) stack Region table dataParent U Area textChild stack U Area data Region table Kernel File Kernel Region Table Table