Transboundary aquifers in asia


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Transboundary aquifers in asia

  2. 2. AUTHORS AND AFFILIATIONS Han Zaisheng China Geological Survey, Department of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology R. Jayakumar UNESCO Office Beijing
  3. 3. CONTENTS • • • • • • • • • • • • Abstract Introduction Geography Transboundary Aquifers in Asia Transboundary Aquifers in China Ertix Valley Plain Aquifer Yalu River Valley Middle Heilongjiang Amur River Basin Karst Aquifer of Up River of Hong River and Zuojiang Valley Case Study Conclusion References
  4. 4. ABSTRACT Transboundary aquifers have crucial ecological and social implications. This article attempts to summarize the investigation on the transboundary aquifers in Asia. The groundwater resources in Asia, including its distribution, exploitation and challenges is also provided. Hydrogeological condition of the Heilongjiang-Amur River Basin aquifer, which is one of the eight major aquifers, is further elaborated as a case study.
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION • World’s largest aquifers, including the Rum-Saq, the Nubian, and the North Sahara Aquifer.These provide alternative solutions to prevent conflicts and maintain peace. (Naff and Matson, 1984). Acting as precious resources hidden underground(Puri and Aureli, 2005). • An overview on the groundwater resources in China, including its distribution, quality and recharge, as well as recent challenges has also been included.
  6. 6. GEOGRAPHY The north, south, east and west of Asia border on the Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The major rivers flows into Pacific Ocean are HeilongjiangAmur River, Yellow River, Yangtze River, Pearl River and Mekong River. The major rivers flows into Indian Ocean are Indian River, Ganges River, Salween River, Ayeyarwady River, Tigris River and Euphrates River etc.
  7. 7. CONT... The inland Rivers are situated in central and west arid area of Asia. The majors are Sill River, Amu River, Ili River, Talimu River and Jordan River etc. Lakes: North Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, Qinghai-Tibet tableland and Middle-lowest Yangtze River.
  10. 10. ERTIX VALLEY PLAIN AQUIFER Shared by China and Kazakhstan. Originates from southern slope of the Altai Mountains. Length:2669 kilometers. Drainage area:1070000 square kilometers. Ertix River flows into the Zhaisang lake of Kazakhstan that subsequently feeds into the E'Bi lake of Russia, and into the Arctic Ocean
  11. 11. YALU RIVER VALLEY Shared by China and Korea. Basalt fracture rock aquifers are the sources for water supply for both. Chemical type is HCO3-Mg.Ca.
  12. 12. MIDDLE HEILONGJIANG–AMUR RIVER BASIN • Shared by China and Russia. • The total area is estimated to be 100000 km2 • The area of the Russian portion is 55,000 km2 • China with an area of 45000 km2 • Divided into: a. Quaternary pore aquifer b. Tertiary pore aquifer c. Pre- Quaternary bedrock fissure aquifer
  13. 13. KARST AQUIFER OF UP RIVER OF HONG RIVER AND ZUOJIANG VALLEY Shared by China and Vietnam. Area within China is 62000 km2. Annual average precipitation:1500~1800mm Geomorphologically, from northwest to southeast, there are valleys and plains in both river sides of Zuojiang valley. Depth of groundwater is mostly less than 30m and is even less than 10m at some places
  14. 14. CASE STUDY MIDDLE HEILONGJIANG-AMUR RIVER BASIN GEOGRAPHY • Encircled by mountains, with the Buren heights in Russia to northwest, the Sihote-Aline mountain range to the east, and China’s Wanda Mountains to the south. • The total area is 100,000 km2. • The Chinese portion of the basin is called Three River plain. with an area of 45,000 km2. • The Russian portion of the aquifer is 55,000km2 • Important economic region for both northeast China and the far east of Russia.
  15. 15. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS • The dominating climate of the river is the typical continental monsoon climate • The annual mean temperature of the area is 2.80C, with the highest temperature of 37.70C and the lowest temperature of -38.80C. • The annual mean precipitation of the basin fluctuates from 500-650mm.
  16. 16. RIVER SYSTEMS • Major rivers within this basin are the Heilongjiang River, Songhua River and Wusuli River. • Heilongjiang River is a transboundary river flowing across China, Russia and Mongolia. • 11th longest river in the world with a length of , is 4,400 km. • Its total drainage area is up to 1,855,000 km2, ranking it the 10th largest in the world. • The drainage area within China is about 893,400 km2 accounting for 48% of the total drainage area of the entire river.
  17. 17. CONT... • Songhua River is the largest tributary with a total length of 2,309 km and a drainage area of over 546,000 km2. • The Wusuli Rive is another major tributary with a length of 890 km, with a drainage area of nearly 7,000 km2. The length of main channel of the Wusuli River is 500 km
  18. 18. GROUNDWATER RESOURCE Unfortunately, China and Russia have not jointly evaluated the groundwater resources of the Heilongjiang-Amur river basin, but the two countries have calculated the groundwater resource contained within their own areas, respectively. • The annual average groundwater recharge in the Chinese portion is 5.14 billion m3, and the total annual groundwater available is 3.71 billion m3. • The the total groundwater reserves in the Russian portion are 150 m3/s and the groundwater withdrawal modeled is 3.7L/s.km2.
  19. 19. GROUND WATER QUALITY • According to the investigation on groundwater quality in the Chinese portion, chemicals contained in the water are mainly HCO3-Ca. Mg, HCO3-Ca, and HCO3-Na,Ca. The groundwater is mostly low mineralized weak acidic soft water with high content of humic acid. • The mineralization degree is generally less than 0.5g/L and varies between 0.2g/L and 0.75g/L. • The pH value is 6.5-7.5 and total hardness is 1.454.29mmol/L. Most of the water is good for drinking and irrigation purposes.
  20. 20. GROUNDWATER USES • Groundwater of the middle Heilongjiang-Amur River basin is the primary source of water supply for people living in both China and Russia for irrigation and human consumption. • Middle Heilongjiang-Amur River basin has several advantages including extensively distributed aquifer and groundwater with stable quality. • All these features turn groundwater in aquifers of the Songhua River and Heilongjiang-Amur River a crucial source of water supply for the Jiamusi city of China and the Khabarovsk city of Russia.
  21. 21. CONCLUSION Water is an important and precious resource for the entire globe. It is essential for human existence and is also extensively linked with social development. The recent international forums, including the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, the World Water Forum in Kyoto and Mexico, and the Dushanbe Fresh Water Forum, have consistently stressed that the function of water for human survival and social development would not only depend on national but also on international water resources. This could again emphasize the importance of transboundary aquifers in the world for both the natural and social environment.
  22. 22. REFERENCES • ter/17448.htm • •, %20H.pdf