Who is a terrorist?
Who or What is being targeted?
What causes terrorism?
Invalidated myths about causes of terrorism
Precipitants of terrorism
Prevention of Terrorism
3. TERRORISM DEFINED
“The unlawful use of force against persons or
property to intimidate a government, civilian
population, or any segment thereof, in the
furtherance of political or social objectives.”
Is an unlawful act of violence
Intimidates governments or societies
Goal is to achieve political, religious or
5. WHO IS A TERRORIST?
The world is deeply divided over who is a terrorist.
There will always be those who will claim that
some acts of violence against states and civilians
There will always be those who claim that there is
a universal standard for defining terrorism.
6. WHO OR WHAT IS BEING
Attacks on civilians,
Key economic targets, and
7. WHAT CAUSES TERRORISM?
Public despair and humiliation.
Anarchy (failed states).
8. INVALIDATED MYTHS
ABOUT CAUSES OF TERRORISM:
There are only a weak and indirect
relationships between poverty and terrorism
State sponsorship of terrorism: not a root cause to
terrorism, but an enabling factor
Religious fanaticism: Suicidal terrorism is not
caused by religion as such, but religion may give
shape to and justification of political extremism
Madness: Terrorists are not insane or irrational actors
9. PRECONDITIONS FOR TERRORISM
Lack of democracy, civil rights and the rule of law
Failed or weak states
Illegitimate and corrupt governmsent
Extremist ideologies (secular or religious)
10. PRECONDITIONS FOR TERRORISM…
Historical traditions of political violance, civil war,
revolutions, dictatorship or occupation
Hegemony and inequality in power
Repression by foreign occupation or colonial
The experience of discrimination on the basis of
ethnic or religious origin
Failure by the state to integrate dissident groups or
emerging social classes
The experience of social injustice
11. PRECIPITANTS OF TERRORISM
The presence of charismatic ideological leaders.
Provocative events triggering violent responses.
12. TERRORIST MOTIVES
Disrupt Normal Life
Direct Kill of an Enemy
13. PREVENTION OF TERRORISM
cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors.
Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all
human beings, not just “my group of people”
Eliminate the root of terrorism
14. PREVENTION OF TERRORISM
Establish surveillance and monitoring system on
Improve protective system for citizens
15. PREVENTION OF TERRORISM
Early detection of the sources
Prevent the extension of impairments
Rescue the survivors
Console the rest of the population
16. TERRORISM CONCLUSIONS
Terrorism is an ancient tactic.
Terrorism is a mode of communication.
Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical
Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war.
is designed to make a point, through
psychological means, fear.
Terrorism is a political act.