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Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
Field report on kirana hills
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Field report on kirana hills

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  • 1. REPORT ON A GEOLOGICAL FIELD EXCURSION FROM ISLAMABAD TO KIRANA HILLS, SARGODHA, PAKISTAN DEPERTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES BAHRIA UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD 1
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All praise to Allah Almighty who blessed me with the courage and ability to work on this report and to compile it. I would like to thank the department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University for offering us this four days of field work as a course in our semester, we gained a lot of information and cleared the confusions for without field work it is very difficult to understand the theory. Special thanks to Dr. Tehseenullah Khan, Professor Bahria University, Islamabad and Mr. Saqib Mehmood, Assistant Professor, Bahria University, Islamabad whose guidance, vast knowledge, experience and interest helped us a lot in understanding the different geological features and rock formations and also helped us in enhancing our practical knowledge of how to analyze different structures in the field. Also a very special thanks to the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University Islamabad, to arrange such an informative field excursion. I
  • 3. ABSTRACT The report is about our field work in Sargodha and Chinot on the Kirana Hills. This report contains general stratigraphy of the area we visited, topography of kirana hills and the trip overview, personal conclusion and the information on the area, location, tectonics, general stratigraphy and field observations of the different areas that we visited in Sargodha and Chinot. This report has the theoretical knowledge of what I learned during the four days of our work. II
  • 4. CONTENTS PAGE NO. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I ABSTRACT II CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 01 1.2 Purpose Of Field 01 1.3 Location and Accessibility 01 1.4 Methodology 03 CHAPER: 2 GENERAL GEOLOGY 2.1 Topography of the Kirana Hills 04 2.2 Formations of the study area 04 2.2.1 Hachi Formation 05 2.2.2 Tuguwali Formation 05 2.2.3 Asianwala Formation 05 2.2.4 Hadda Formation 06 2.2.5 Sharaban Formation 06 CHAPTER: 3 DAY: 1 CHAK 100 QILLA HILLS 3.1 Station: 1 08 3.2 Station: 2 09 CHAPTER: 4 4.1 DAY: 2 Station: 1 CHAK 102 SHARABAN AREA 11
  • 5. 4.2 Station: 2 14 4.3 Station: 3 14 4.4 Station: 4 15 CHAPTER: 5 DAY: 3 SHAHEEN-ABAD & BULAND HILLS 5.1 Station: 1 16 5.2 Station: 2 17 5.3 Station: 3 18 5.4 Station: 4 19 5.5 Station: 5 19 5.6 Station: 6 21 CHAPER: 6 6.1 Station: 1 DAY: 4 CHINIOT 22 CONCLUSION 23 REFERENCES 24
  • 6. LISTS OF FIGURES PAGE NO. Figure: 3.1 Light greenish coloured dolerite observed at station 1 Qilla hills. 09 Figure: 3.2 Image of Dolerite with Quartzite 09 Figure: 3.3 Dolerite dike intruding into quartzite 10 Figure: 3.4 Chert present in Quartzite 10 Figure: 4.1 12 Figure: 4.3 Caving observed at Sharaban Area, station 1 due to whirling of water as in physical weathering Conglomerates, grading into slaty structure, observed at sharaban area. Sedimentary dike intruding in Quartzite Figure: 4.4 Lens shaped Quartz veins 13 Figure: 4.5 Encirled Area shows the convolution banding in the formation. Jesper (Red variety of Quartz) 14 Opening of the cave where hematite is extracted. Iron veins in the quartzite formation can be seen clearly Iron bands or veins in the quartzite formation can be seen clearly Structure showing Rhyolite (Yellow) intruded between Quartzite. A figure showing Tuffaceous slate 15 18 Figure: 5.4 A picture of Basalt, there were calcite and quartz veins in it A picture showing Hachi boulders (Buland Hills) Figure: 5.5 A snapshot of Rhyolite dike 20 Figure: 5.6 20 Figure: 5.7 Qaurtz veins can be seen clearly in this rhyolite dike (extrusion) Image showing sharp contact of rhyolite with slate. Figure: 5.8 Quartzite and dolerite, pale yellow color can be observed 19 Figure: 4.2 Figure: 4.6 Figure: 4.7 Figure: 4.8 Figure: 5.1 Figure: 5.2 Figure: 5.3 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20
  • 7. Figure: 6.1 An image of Hematite sample 22 Figure: 6.2 Another picture showing the grains of micaceous hematite in hand lens Dandritic pattern observed at Chiniot 22 Figure: 6.3 22 LIST OF SKETCHES PAGE NO. Sketch 1 Sketches of day 1 i Sketch 2 Sketches of day 2 ii Sketch 3 Sketches of day 3 iii Sketch 4 Sketches of day 4 iv
  • 8. LIST OF MAPS PAGE NO. 02 Map: 1.1 Satellite image of Sargodha Map: 1.2 Route map from Islamabad to Sargodha 02 Map: 1.3 Satellite image of Chiniot 03 Map: 2.1 Geological resource map of Kirana area 07 Map: 3.1 Route map from Sargodha to Chak 100 (Qilla Hills) 08 Map: 4.1 Route map from Sargodha to Chak 102 11 Map: 5.1 Route map from Sargodha to Shaheen-abad 16 Map: 6.1 Route map from Sargodha to Chiniot 22 Sharaban Area
  • 9. CHAPTER : 1 INRTODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND The Kirana area comprises of metasedimentary and igneous Precambrian rocks which have been intruded by dykes and sills. An indication of mineralization in the form of quartz veins is also present in the area but as yet no significant deposit has been reported. The Kirana Hills are a major source of crushed rock aggregates for private and public sectors in southern and central Punjab. The precambrian rocks are considered to be very important throughout the world as these contain valuable mineral deposits. Hematite mineralization has been noticed in the area. 1.2 PURPOSE OF FIELD The primary purpose and objective of the field work was to enhance our knowledge and to understand, how to analyze the different rock formations, how to measure the dip and strike of the formations and draw rough sketches of the area. Also the purpose was to make our practical knowledge more sound and to identify the various features that are exposed in the outcrop. 1.3 LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY Sargodha is the 11th largest city of Pakistan and 5th largest of Punjab. It is located in the north-east of Pakistan. It is known as best citrus-producing and also one of the ore producing cities of Pakistan. Map 1.1 shows the satellite view of Sargodha. 1
  • 10. Map: 1.1 Satellite image of Sargodha The coordinates of Sargodha are 32.0836° N and 72.6711° E. The city is easily accessible from Islamabad via Islamabad motorway. Sargodha is located 206 km (128 miles) from Lahore the second largest city in Pakistan and 244 km (152 miles) from Islamabad. The route map from Islamabad to Sargodha is shown below in map 1.2. Map: 1.2 Route map from Bahria University Islamabad to Sargodha 2
  • 11. Chiniot city is located between the heart of river Chenab with the heads of small rocky hills, it is known for its wooden furniture architecture which has a great attraction in all over the world. Map 1.3 shows the satellite view of Chiniot. Map: 1.3 Satellite image of Chiniot The coordinates of chiniot city are 31.7200° N and 72.9789° E. Chiniot is located 55km from Sargodha and is easily accessible. 1.4 METHODOLOGY The methodology by which we studied Stratigraphy is: Observe the formation members, outcrops, lithology and make cross-sections. Measure the dip strike and draw the sketches of the deformational structures Take samples and cross match to observe similarities and differences. 3
  • 12. CHAPTER 2 GENERAL GEOLOGY 2.1 TOPOGRAPHY OF KIRANA HILLS The Kirana Hills is a small mountain range in Pakistan's Punjab province. It spans approximately 40 miles across the districts of Sargodha and Jhang. The highest peak in the Kirana Hills is Koh-e-Kirana, which is about 980 feet high. The region is also known as "Black Mountains" by locals because of the dark brown colors of the range. The Kirana Hills and its environs are heavily infested with wild boar or wild pig. 2.2 FORMATIONS OF THE STUDY AREA: Table 2.1 shows the various formations of the Kirana area. Group Formation Description Sharaban formation Conglomerates with intercalations. Calcareous quartzites Hadda formation Machh Super Group Asianwala Formation Tuguwali Formation Chak 112 Conglomerates Volcanogenic slates Hachi volcanics Volcanics 4 slate Mainly quartzites with sub ordinate quartz wackes / arenaceous slates, gritty quartzites and slates, often showing cross bedding and ripple marks Slates, fine grained quartz wackes / arenaceous slates Polymict conglomerate with clasts of dolerite and acid volcanics. Often interbedded with rhyolite / rhyolitic tuff and dolerite Dolerites, andesites, dacites, dacitic tuff, rhyolites and rhyolitic tuff.
  • 13. 2.2.1 Hachi Formation Named after the type Locality at Hachi Hill lies between latitude 31° 54' 09" N and longitude 72° 41' 59" E, north of Sikhanwali railway station, this formation consists of quartzites, slates, phyllites, tuffs and lava flows. At the type locality it is 404 m thick. The quartzites in the formation are light to medium grey, medium grained and comprise rounded to subrounded quartz grains with clay minerals .The tuffs are light grey, interlayered with lavas and metasediments. The lavas are largely rhyoloitic to dacitic with minor andesite and no pillow structures. 2.2.2 Tuguwali Formation This formation is named after the Taguwali Village which lies between the latitude 31° 56'N and longitude 72° 42'E and the type section is south of Kirana Hill, located at the coordinates 31° 58' 3''N and 72° 42' 0''E .This formation is entirely composed of sedimentary rocks with phyllites and slates dominating its upper part, slates in its middle part and cross bedded quartzites, phyllites and slates in its lower part .The formation is about 1189 m thick. The lower contact of this formation with the underlying Hachi formation is obscure. Its upper contact with the Asianwala formation is gradational. 2.2.3 Asianwala Formation The formation drives its name from the Asianwala canal rest house which lies between latitude 31° 59' 38''N and 72° 43' 42''E. The Kirana Hill, near Sargodha, is the type locality. This formation is largely comprised of quartzite with subordinate intercalations of slate .The quartzite is off-white to light grey or mottled brown. It is comprised of well-sorted surrounded to rounded quartz grains. It is thick-bedded, cross-bedded and ripple-marked. The interbedded slates are grey and occur in thin layers. The upper part of the formation is covered by alluvium .It has a gradational contact with the underlying Taguwali formation .No fossils have yet been found .At the type locality the formation is about 250 m thick 5
  • 14. 2.2.4 Hadda Formation The formation has been named after the Hadda canal rest house, 20 km from Sargodha. It is largely comprised of quartzites, slates conglomerates and lava flows. At the type locality it is about 372 m thick .The quartzites are the dominant rock type .They are rusty brown, fine-grained and at places cross-bedded. Slumping of beds is also evident at some locations. The upper part of the formation is dominated by conglomerates, interbedded with lesser amounts of quartzites. The conglomerates contain flattened pebbles of quartzite slate and lesser amount of limestone. The middle part is largely composed of light grey to brownish grey fine grained, thin bedded quartzites. The lower part of the formation is comprised of light grey quartzites which are highly ferruginous at places. No fossils have been found .the formation is exposed in isolated hillocks without any connection with older sequences. According to Alam et al (1992), it is conformably overlain by the Sharaban formation 2.2.5 Sharaban Formation Named after the type locality at Sharaban hill, about 18 km SE of Sargodha the formation is characterized by a 120 m thick sequence of conglomerates with minor lenses of fine-grained quartzite. The conglomerate is thick bedded (5-10 m) and contains flattened and elongated pebbles and cobbles (1-10cm) of quartzite and slate, apparently derived from the older sequences in this region. The conglomerate also contains limestone pebbles that must have come from distant source since there are no limestone outcrops in this region. No fossils have been found in this formation .Its upper part is covered by alluvium. According to Alam et al (1992) stratigraphically it overlies all the other four formations. 6
  • 15. Map: 2.1 Geological resource map of Kirana area 7
  • 16. CHAPTER 3 DAY : 1 CHAK 100 QILLA HILLS Latitude: 31 58’ 56” N Longitude: 72° 13′ 18′′ E Map: 3.1 Route Map from Sargodha to Chak 100 Qilla Hills 3.1 STATION: 1 The location was Qilla hills. Rugged, massive, medium grained Dolerite (hypabasal igneous rock) was seen which was greenish in colour as shown in figure 3.1. It contained amphibole and plagioclase which was present at station 1. If the outcrop is fresh then pyroxene will be present. Dolerite is equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro, shearing phenomenon was observed. Greenish looking igneous rock, Dolerite is due to feldspar, weathered into sericite. It would have had foliation, schistosity if it was metamorphic rocks and if it was sedimentary then it would have been layered. 8
  • 17. Figure: 3.1 3.2 Light greenish coloured dolerite observed at station 1 Qilla hills. STATION: 2 As we moved further to second station, we observed dark coloured dolerite, containing amphibole and plagioclase. If it would have been fresh, if it had contained amphibole and pyroxene. Convolution banding was also observed at station 2. Figures 3.2 shows the outcrop of station 2. Figure: 3.2 Image of Dolerite with Quartzite 9
  • 18. Quartzite had an intrusion of Rhyolite, and Quartz veins were also present in Dolerite. Plagioclase cuts into amphibole. At station 2, Quartzite is intruded by a dolerite dike. Dolerite Dike Figure: 3.3 Dolerite dike intruding into quartzite The dark and light color in quartzite show mineralogical variations. Mafic minerals were greater in dolerite. Lithological variation was present. Quartzite has flint that confirms that it is not rhyolite, and has very fine grained chert as shown in figure 3.4. Figure: 3.4 Chert present in Quartzite The dip and strike which was calculated was: Strike: N70°W Dip: 68°NE 1 0
  • 19. CHAPTER 4 DAY : 2 SHARABAN AREA Lattitude: 31° 57’ 07” N Longitude: 72° 47’ 5” E Map: 4.1 Route map from Sargodha to Chak 102 Sharaban area 4.1 STATION: 1 The outcrop here is also quartzite but it’s different from the one observed at chak 100. Shearing phenomenon was observed. Faults were present, intraformational shearing in faults. Caving of formation was observed due to whirling of water effect as occurs in physical weathering as shown in figure 4.1. 1 1
  • 20. Figure: 4.1 Caving observed at Sharaban Area, station 1 due to whirling of water as in physical weathering Formation is sandstone metamorphosed to quartize. Slate was also identified, conglomerates with slaty interclations shown in figure 4.2. Gradational contact was observed. Quartz veins were also present in the formation as were observed previously at chak 100 on day 1. Calcareous schist extention greenish due to carbonates (may contain mudstone, siltstone). Indications of Breccia were also reported in the formation. Figure: 4.2 Conglomerates, grading into slaty structure, observed at sharaban area. 1 2
  • 21. Layered sedimentry dike was also identified as shown in figure 4.3, which was intruding into quartzite, having a total length of approx. 14 feet and varying width with a maximum of 8.2 inches and a minimum of 4.0 inches Figure: 4.3 Sedimentary dike intruding in Quartzite Lens shaped Quartz veins were also observed at station 1. As shown in figure 4.4. Figure: 4.4 Lens shaped Quartz veins 1 3
  • 22. Dip and Strike of the area was: Strike: N 80° E Dip: 68° SE 4.2 STATION: 2 Convolution banding was observed in the formation at station 2 as shown in figure 4.5 Figure: 4.5 4.3 Encirled Area shows the convolution banding in the formation. STATION: 3 Red veriety of quartz was found there, which is known as Jesper embedded in quartzite was also identified as shown in figure 4.6. Dog toothspar (well developed crystals of calcite) were also found at places. Figure: 4.6 Jesper (Red variety of Quartz) 1 4
  • 23. 4.4 STATION: 4 There was an adit (cave) as shown in figure 4.9, where the mining on iron ore used to be done. Now it has been abandoned due to casualties caused by blasting as the nearby area is a village. Iron bands in the quartzite formation are present, these hematite veins were caused by hydrothermal activity. Figure: 4.7 Opening of the cave where hematite is extracted Figure: 4.8 Iron bands or veins in the quartzite formation can be seen clearly 1 5
  • 24. CHAPTER: 5 DAY : 3 SHAHEENABAD Lattitude: 31° 55’ 56” N Longitude: 72° 13’ 18” E Map: 5.1 Route map from Sargodha to Shaheen-abad 5.1 STATION: 1 Five unites have been observed. Quartzite Dolorite Tuffacious slate Basalt Rhyolite (And some metallic mineralization) In igneous rocks, we use weathered surface for identification of rocks. The dark visible surface is amphibole (granular texture) and the yellowish layer is rhyolite (silica rich) that has intruded into quartzite. There was alot of shearing phenomena 1 6
  • 25. observed at station 1 as shown in figure 5.1. Figure: 5.1 Structure showing Rhyolite (Yellow) intruded between Quartzite. Dip and Strike was measured to be: Strike: N 60° W Dip: 65° SW 5.2 STATION: 2 Strike: N35° W Dip: 30° NE Here we observed tuffaceous slate as shown in figure 5.2. Slate has platty structure, breaks along planes. It can easily be identified on the field by its earthen smell. 1 7
  • 26. Figure: 5.2 5.3 A figure showing Tuffaceous slate STATION: 3 Large beds of basalt were observed as shown in figure 5.3 below. Basalt is a volcanic rock with fine grained texture. Mafic minerals can be present in it, the dark minerals are usually amphibole and pyroxene, sometimes plagioclase, feldspathoids, or olivine. Slate, basalt and micaseous hematite was present. Figure: 5.3 A picture of Basalt, there were calcite and quartz veins in it Strike: N 45° W Dip: 20° SW 1 8
  • 27. 5.4 STATION: 4 This place is known as Hachi Boulders, belong to Kirana group. The age of Kirana hills was determined from Buland hills IN 1973, these are of pre-cambrian age and about 843 million years old. Formation here is quartzite all around. Figure: 5.4 5.5 A picture showing Hachi boulders (Buland Hills) STATION: 5 Typical Rhyolite intrusion was observed, at chak 108. Rhyolite is made of viscous lava and is consolidated but here there were cracks in it due to high pressure. This was a typical rhyolite dike that shows extrusion. The surface of this dike was weathered and was pinkish at places that showed greater than 66% concentration of potassium rich feldspar in rhyolite.The length of the dike was measured to be 110 feet. The dike has sheared and alteration zones present in it and hence there were quartz veins in it, and sharp contact at the bottom with slate which was because of the conjugate joint and the mineralization of Quartz has occurred as shown in figures 5.5. 1 9
  • 28. Figure: 5.5 A snapshot of Rhyolite dike Figure: 5.6 Qaurtz veins can be seen clearly in this rhyolite dike (extrusion) There is also a sharp contact between Rhyolite and slate that can be observed very clearly as shown in figure 5.7. Figure: 5.7 Image showing sharp contact of rhyolite with slate. 2 0
  • 29. 5.6 STATION: 6 This was the last stop of the day Chak 109, the rock formation was quartzite-dolorite mostly. The color was pale yellow due to ochry (limonite) mineralization in the formation as shown in figures 5.8. The color was disturbed due to the dust caused by the blasting of hachi boulders for crushing stones. Usually hypabasal rocks from dikes. Strike: N 40° W Dip: 55° SW Figure: 5.8 Quartzite and dolerite, pale yellow color can be observed. 2 1
  • 30. CHAPTER: 6 Day 4 CHINIOT Lattitude: 31° 43′ 30′′ N Longitude: 72° 58′ 26′′ E Map: 6.1 Route Map from Sargodha to Chiniot 6.1 STATION: 1 Strike: N 40° W Dip: 85° NE The outcrop is rhyolite with phenocrysts and feldspars. Hematite veins are observed as shown in figure 6.1, which might be a result of hydrothermal alterations as vein type mineralization cannot be achieved without a heat source and it is magmatic. The yellow color is due to the limonite present. Mangenese is also present. We also noticed Metallic luster with black streak. Micaceous hematite is present as veins shown in figure 6.2. Dandritic pattern was also observed as we moved further up the hill as shown in figure 6.3. 2 2
  • 31. Figure: 6.1 An image of Hematite sample Figure: 6.2 Another picture showing the grains of micaceous hematite in hand lens Figure: 6.3 Dandritic pattern observed at Chiniot. 2 3
  • 32. CONCLUSION The Kirana hills are the outliers of shield rocks in the Punjab plains present in the Kirana, Chiniot, Shahkot and Sangla areas. The rocks are of Precambrian age. The area consists of two geomorphic features i-e scattered hills and flat alluvial plains. The Precambrian outcrops are composed of metasedimentary and igneous rocks. The metasedimentary rocks are represented by quartzites, slates and phyllites. The Kirana area comprises of metasedimentary and igneous Precambrian rocks which have been intruded by dykes and sills. An indication of mineralization in the form of quartz veins is also present in the area but as yet no significant deposit has been reported. 2 4
  • 33. REFERENCES Ahmed, S.A, Mateen, A., Khan, Z.K.and Chaudhary,M.N.,2000.Geology and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Kirana Volcanics, Sargodha District, Punjab ,Pakistan. Geol. Bull. Punjab Univ. Alam, G.S (1987). Geology of Kirana Hills, District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.Geol. Bull. Surv. Pak. Inf. Release 201,36p. Davies, R.G. and Crawford, A.R., (1971). Petrography and age of the rocks of Buland Hill, Kirana Hills, District Sargodha, West Pakistan.Geol.Mag.108, pp. 235-246. Heron, A.M. (1913), The Kirana and other hills in the Jech and Rechna Doabs. Recs. Geol. Surv. India 43, pp. 229-236. pu.edu.pk/images/journal/geology/PDF-FILES/Vol_44_55-67.pdf prr.hec.gov.pk/Thesis/2688H.pdf 2 5

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