In this slide I have the Introduction for this presentation, and as you see, I have six main points in my lecture: Orientation The basic principles and practices of research-based teacher education The intended competencies and qualifications of a future teacher The teaching practice periods of class teacher education The basic structure and contents of research-based class teacher education Conclusions So, first I will orientate you to the current situation related with Finnish teacher education. Then I will present you the basic principles and theoretical structures influencing behind our research-based teacher education program. Then I will concentrate on the intended competencies and qualifications of a future teacher and focus on teaching practice periods of class teacher education as well as the basic structure and contents of research-based class teacher education . Among these issues I will present the future challenges of teacher education. If you have any questions concerning the issues that I am presenting, please interrupt me and ask. We also have short time for discussion after this presentation, so you can ask your questions then also.
The current situation in Finland is – as you know - such that the wide international interest has focused on our educational system and research-based teacher education among researchers and in public discussion Our PISA results are one big influencing factor at the moment, as you know very well. People around the world have also heard about the specific characteristics of Finnish teacher education People also wonder the fact, that we have a large amount of applicants in teacher education. We have the possibility to choose the best students to our teacher education from huge amount of applicants. Despite these facts, we also have realities that we are facing all the time with our teachers and teacher education. Teachers have big responsibilities in their everyday work. They have lately mentioned, that The high goals of the national core curriculum, Quite big classes, Pupils with needs of special educational, as well as Multicultural issues are things that confuse them at moment. They have started to think about, that what actually is the core of teacher ’ s work and how should they be prepared for it
The Finnish national core curriculum have to be discussed together with the steering system behind it in order to understand its functions in Finnish comprehensive school. The steering system of Finnish basic education has multiple hierarchical levels: The foundation of the system is the Basic Education Act and decrees. The Council of state determines the general goals of education and the time allocations for various subjects. The National Board of Education develops the national core curriculum, which outlines the local curricula at municipalities. In Finland, education providers form their own local curriculum. This might be a joint curriculum for all schools in the municipality area or schools might form their own curricula, which are then approved by the school officials of the municipality. Municipalities and schools are granted great autonomy in organising education and implementing the core curriculum, which is to ensure freedom to make individual choices based on the local needs of different schools. Local decision-making is also seen as a means of increasing local actors’ commitment to the curriculum process and implementation of the curriculum. Their active involvement in the process is reinforced by the autonomy and freedom that they are afforded. In addition to the curriculum, educational resources shape teaching and education in schools. Textbooks and materials have strong effect on teaching and learning at schools. The curriculum process is a product of the steering system. When the curriculum finally reaches the local authorities it has gone through several levels of administrative work. Still, this is the process where educational professions, parents and wide range of society interest groups have been consulted. Collaboration between national and local levels is really intensive.
As an orientation to the theme of this presentation, I show you a theoretical model of different teacher education programmes There are two structuring dimensions in this model : The deductive-inductive –dimension describes the structure of curriculum in teacher education. The rational-intuitive –dimension describes the quality of pedagogical thinking, which is emphasised during teacher education. So, different teacher education programmes can be described with this four-parted figure, where the quality of teacher education curriculum and teacher ’ s thinking work as structuring factors . The various teacher education programmes have been put into the figure according to their characteristics. 1) We can talk about personal and experiential way of action, when the phenomena are structured inductively and teacher ’ s thinking is intuitive. Maybe this kind of model is not possible as teacher education programme, but it describes the situation, where incompetent teachers are (and we have this kind of situations in Finland at the moment). They just do teacher ’ s work and build their conceptions and principles of teaching. 2) In school-based programmes, a student ’ s pedagogical thinking is based on intuitive and experiential knowledge. In this kind of programmes, the action is structured by doing teachers everyday work. The students learn teacher ’ s profession by teaching, not by analyzing teaching. National curriculums and everyday routines at schools guide teachers ’ work. In this kind of teacher education programme, the teacher ’ s profession is thought to be developed in this controlled system. 3) In problem based, case approach programmes, the rational argumentation is required in finding solutions to inductively constructed cases. Constructivistic and socio-constructivistic conceptions of learning have produced teacher education programmes, which are based on case approach and special phenomena solutions. 4) I would like to focus your attention especially to research based teacher education programmes , where student ’ s rational pedagogical thinking is emphasised. The structure of teacher education curriculum is deductive and it is based on systematic and scientific theory of education. In this kind of model the clear structural main subject, methodological studies and intensive relation with real school life are in central position.
We as teacher educators are trying to face these challenges by setting explicit aims and goals as well as by the nature and quality of our research-based teacher education. The Main Idea of our Class Teacher Education … can be presented in three concepts: interaction, expertise and society The idea of interaction is implemented in practice by supporting the students ’ professionality in maintaining collective working and action culture maintaining different working methods and developing students ’ argumentation skills The graduated class teacher ’ s expertise will be based on pedagogical thinking active and wide knowledge base ability to work as a researching teacher The class teacher education guides the students to think on the ethical issues of education to be active agents of change in school community, teacher education, and society .
Before I told you about the basic structures of research-based teacher education: The deductive structure of the curriculum, and emphasis on rational pedagogical thinking as well as the ideas of two levels of teacher education and two-fold practice. These were quite abstract descriptions of research-based teacher education, and in practice, Research-based approach in Teacher education means, that Every study unit is connected with research in a way or another The conceptualization of practice is the way to handle and understand it in more general, theoretical and rational way From the beginning of the studies the continuous courses of research methods are organized Students study both quantitative research methods and qualitative methods With this we are aiming at overall competence of research methods The principle is that “All methods are known generally, one method is known specifically.” With these research abilities, every student conducts her/his own master ’s thesis As I mentioned in the previous slide, Future teachers are seen as practitioner researchers, and there are two viewpoints in this Teachers are seen as producers of the research: they have the ability to conduct educational research They are also seen as consumers of the research: they should have the ability to understand and use research results and information in their own work MA in education offers a possibility, a direct access to doctoral studies
In this three-stage model of our teacher education… The highest level describes our research-based approach of teacher education, which works as a meta-theory of our program. The Second level is a level of various educational theories, special theoretical models and educational emphases. They can be changed a little in teacher education and they can be adapted according to the trends and tendencies of time. A central question is, what kind of contents and theories are chosen and to be taught for our students that would help them in teaching practice. The first level is factual action level in teacher education and at schools. All single courses, different alternatives and practical arrangements are there. These should be in line with the reality and current challenges at schools. In conclusion, there should be intensive interaction between scientific knowledge of teacher education and practical reality at schools .
The data collection of our study was conducted by using this procedure of guided reflection just described and pictured in this figure more carefully. The data presented in this paper was collected from four student teachers during their final teaching practice period. After videotaping an optional lesson and the stimulated recall interview, student teachers chose an incident according their own intentions for further examination during the following reflective discussion. At this meeting, around a week later, student teachers considered their critical incident from possible different perspectives and in wider context with the help of the researcher. In the third phase, reflection was conducted in the form of a reflective portfolio presentation. In portfolios, student teachers were advised to evaluate their aims and goals of practicum teaching in the light of theoretical ideas. Especially they were asked to reflect on the critical incident from videotaped lesson in broader context.
The analysis proved that student teachers ’ reflection in first STR-interviews, so called hot stance, was mainly focused on themselves. The amounts of task-related reflection and impact-related reflection were quite small. The reflections were emotional, quite simple and quick interpretations of the classroom situations that student teachers just had gone through. This shows that habitual, introspective and associative conceptions and thoughts are deeply rooted in teachers ’ thinking. In the second phase of the procedure, a cooler stance, the amount of self-focused reflection was smaller than in the first phase, whereas the amounts of task-focused reflection and impact-focused reflection were increased. Student teachers were more able to consider their work in classroom. They had had time to think about the events of the lesson on a more general level partly because they got some support to enlarge and widen their perspectives. In the third phase of the procedure, a coolest stance, the emphasis was still in the self-focused reflection, but the amounts of task-focused reflection and impact-focused reflection were even bigger. During the portfolio writing, the student teachers were able to think about the practical issues of teaching more thoroughly and on a more general level. Their reflections were mainly cognitive, more complex and thorough interpretations of the situations than in previous phases.
In this slide the wholeness and all the contents of class teacher education is presented.
In this slide the wholeness and all the contents of subject teacher education is presented.
You have heard the central ideas of our teacher education, the research-based approach and the emphasis of pedagogical thinking Based on this, our central question is, How our teachers become – and stay – as a reflective teachers? We educate our student teachers extremely profoundly by teaching them education and subject didactics In research studies they practice researching and in practicum studies they practice teaching With these, we aim at educating reflective teachers In order to preserve this reflective orientation towards teacher ’ s work, we think that the continuum between pre-service and in-service teacher education should be organised more systematically
Toom 2012 educational_system_and_te_in_finland
INSIGHTS INTOEDUCATIONAL SYSTEMAND RESEARCH-BASEDTEACHER EDUCATIONIN FINLANDAuli Toom, PhD, Adjunct Professor, University of Helsinkiauli.firstname.lastname@example.org
INTRODUCTION Orientation The basic principles of Finnish educational system The intended competencies and qualifications of a future teacher The basic ideas, structures and contents of Finnish research-based class teacher education Conclusions
FINLAND independent since 1917, member of the European Union since 1995 total area 338,000 km2, population 5.4 million (15,7 inhabitants / km2) two official languages: Finnish (91 %), Swedish (5,4 %) Sámi (0,03 %) Lutheran (80,7 %), Orthodox (1,1 %) immigrants: 2 % of population
ORIENTATION The wide international interest towards Finnish schools and teacher education among researchers and in public PISA results The specific characteristics of Finnish teacher education The huge amount of applicants in teacher education Current challenges and teacher’s responsibilities High goals of the national core curriculum Size of classes Pupils with needs of special education Multicultural issues
EDUCATIONAL POLICY DEFINITIONS A central aim of the Finnish educational policy is to provide all citizens with equal opportunities to receive education irrespective of age, domestic place, economic status, sex or mother tongue. regional accessibility of education equal opportunities to education for both language groups, Finnish and Swedish no separation of the sexes free of charge
ADMINISTRATION The broad national objectives and the division of teaching time between school subjects are decided by the government The National Board of Education defines the objectives and core contents of teaching by confirming the national core curriculum Local schools prepare their own detailed curricula In Finland, each local authority is obligated to provide basic education for all children living within the municipality
SCHOOL AUTONOMY IN PRINCIPLE Profiling of schools Text books and other teaching materials Teachers choose and decide the materials Since 1993, no state official control of the materials used at schools Broad pedagogical autonomy of teachers Schools decide on group forming, work schedules, daily work rhythm and other practices Voluntary participation in national development programs (e.g. ICT use at schools, pedagogical innovations etc.)
CURRICULUM National Core Curriculum (2004) determines the national objectives and guidelines for instruction and main contents in all school subjects is based on the basic ideas of socio-constructivist conception of learning guidelines by the municipality – local orientation School-based curriculum schools are required to develop their own visions, aims and strategic actions within the nationally determined guidelines and goals contents are determined in a more specific way
STEERING SYSTEM OF BASIC EDUCATION INFINLAND (Vitikka et al., 2012)
PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION is intended for six-year-olds, who will start their comprehensive school in the following year participation is voluntary, about 90% of all six-year-olds participate is provided mainly in kindergartens, but also in pre-school classes operating in connection with comprehensive schools kindergarten teachers are focused on play and a positive attitude towards life
BASIC EDUCATION the general and compulsory education provided for each age group is intended for children from 7-16 years comprehensive school lasts 9 years (with voluntary 10th grade) during the first 6 years, class teachers teach most of the subjects in the 3 highest grades, different subjects are taught by subject teachers
BASIC EDUCATION The aim is to support pupils’ growth towards humanity and ethically responsible membership of society, and to provide them with the knowledge and skills necessary in life. Features of basic education ~ comprehensive school no admission requirements no charges instruction arranged in schools near the home provides eligibility to upper secondary education every Finnish citizen is required to complete this education
SUBJECTS IN BASIC EDUCATION mother tongue (i.e. Finnish or Swedish) other national language (i.e. Swedish or Finnish) foreign languages mathematics, physics, chemistry biology, geography and environmental studies history, social studies religion or ethics physical education, music, arts, crafts health education home economics
UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION- GENERAL UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL offers general education for students of about 16-19 years of age more than half of each age group complete upper secondary school curriculum is planned for 3 years, possible to finish in 2-4 years ends to the matriculation examination gives eligibility for studies at the next educational level
UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION- VOCATIONAL EDUCATION instruction is given in multi-field or specialized vocational institutions in almost all fields of working life completion takes 2-3 years aims primarily at the acquisition of the vocational skills necessary in working life in addition, the three-year programmes give general eligibility for further studies at universities and other institutions of higher education
HIGHER EDUCATION- UNIVERSITY STUDIES characterized by scientific research and the teaching based on it about one third of the age group academic degrees: Bachelor’s degree (3 years) Master’s degree (3+2 years) scientific postgraduate degrees: Licentiate Doctorate
HIGHER EDUCATION- POLYTECHNIC STUDIES oriented towards working life provide vocational higher education in multi-field environment high vocational skill requirements are emphasized the completion of a polytechnic degree takes 3,5-4,5 years
TEACHER EDUCATION IN FINLAND The characteristics of Finnish teacher education have come into discussion as a part of the qualities of Finnish educational system How does the teacher education influence into the Finnish comprehensive school? What is the relationship between Finnish comprehensive school and teacher education? What does it mean that Finnish teachers are academically educated? What kind of strengths, possibilities, threats or challenges include in this relationship?
WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION? CIVILIZED CITIZEN humanity – ethical responsibility – zest for lifeTEACHER SCHOOL TEACHINGEDUCATION curricular demands – needs for special education – multiculturalism – pedagogical challenges FINNISH SOCIETY diversity – economic issues – support for education
THE QUALITIES OF A FUTURE TEACHER?COMMITMENT Motivation Personality Educability SUITABILITY (vrt. Kansanen, 2004)
THE CORE COMPETENCIES OF A FUTURETEACHER? Self-confidence Interaction skills Pedagogical skills for creating relevant teaching-studying- learning environments Ability to tolerate uncertainty Metacognitive skills
DIFFERENT TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES(Kansanen, 2005) DEDUCTIVE The way of organizing activities RATIONAL INTUITIVE School based Research-based Pedagogical thinking Experiential, Problem based, personal case approach INDUCTIVE
TWO LEVELS OF RESEARCH-BASED TEACHER EDUCATION - the characteristics of twofold practice PRACTISING TEACHING PRACTISING RESEARCHINGGENERAL metacognition producing researchLEVEL reflection expertise pedagogical thinkingBASIC everyday thinking adaptationLEVEL skills-based teaching consuming research teaching recipes, routines, tips knowledge-based Making pedagogical decisions Inquiring one’s own work RESEARCH-BASED TEACHER EDUCATION Krokfors et al., 2007
THE MAIN IDEA OF CLASS TEACHER EDUCATION The central idea is to support the students’ professional development by evolving collective working and action culture N different working methods ACTIOIN TER students’ argumentation skills The graduated class teacher’s expertise is based on pedagogical thinking active and wide knowledge base T ISEEXPER ability to work as a researching teacher The class teacher education guides the students to think on the ethical issues of education to be active agents of change in school community, ETYS OCI teacher education, and society.
THE MAIN IDEA OF CLASS TEACHER EDUCATION S O C I E T Y INTERACTION EXPERTISE Collegiality Teacher as researcherworking and action culturedifferent working methods pedagogical thinkingargumentation skills mastery of methodological skills personal practical theory (Krokfors 2005)
RESEARCH-BASED APPROACHIN TEACHER EDUCATION Every study unit connected with research The conceptualization of practice Continuous courses of research methods Quantitative methods – qualitative methods Overall competence of research methods “All are known generally, one is known specifically.” Master’s thesis Teachers as practitioner researchers Producer of the research: ability to conduct the research Consumer of the research: ability to understand and use research results and information in own work Direct access to doctoral studies
RESEARCH-BASED EMPHASISAT THE HEART OF PRACTICUM PERIODS The research-based approach is integrated into every course of the education, also into practice periods The aim is to achieve a balanced development of the teachers personality in which the teacher’s pedagogical thinking is essential by applying the theory into practice by conceptualizing the practice towards the theory Teacher as researcher viewpoint
PRACTICUM IN CLASS TEACHER EDUCATIONGeneral aims curriculum and intentionality as a basis for teaching process understanding of the phases of instruction: planning, implementation and evaluation continuous professional development and reflection - ability to justify and explain own pedagogical decisions understanding of the teacher’s role in societyTwo practice periods Minor subject practicum (12 sp), 3rd study year - various didactical issues concerning different subjects - different teaching methods, materials and aids Main subject practicum (8 sp), 4th or 5th study year - the knowledge of pupil and ability to support them - the ability to co-operate with different instances - the ability to be responsible of the wholeness of teacher’s work
TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOLSTwo teacher training schools at the University of Helsinki Viikki teacher training school comprehensive school, upper secondary school Helsingin Normaalilyseo teacher training school upper levels of comprehensive school, upper secondary schoolThe characteristics of teacher training schools On the one hand “normal schools”… pupils apply to the schools in the same way as to other schools function according with National Core Curricula On the other hand “not so normal schools” are administratively a part of the functions of university teachers are required to have a PhD degree school is didactically emphasized teaching is done by student teachers to a great extent
FIELD SCHOOLS IN CO-OPERATIONSeveral field schools co-operate with University normal schools that have a special contract with university to organize the practice periods and supervise student teachers the principals and teachers are willing to be in collaboration teachers are educated to supervise student teachers at our Department teachers are paid for the supervisionThe advantages of the field school system variation in teacher student training contexts possibility for the student teachers to get to know different schools with different emphasis appropriate solution to avoid a too big amount of students in teacher training schools
SUPERVISION AND OTHER ACTIVITIESDURING THE PRACTICE PERIODSSupervision during the practicum class teacher of training school university lecturer other student teachersObservations of the lessons teacher student’s teaching is observed teacher student observes others’ teachingGroup discussions, feedback discussions analyzing the lessons structuring the practical experiencesTeacher student’s portfolio work analysis of own aims, goals and their realization construction of one’s own pedagogical thinking and practical theory
THE LEVELS OF RESEARCH-BASEDTEACHER EDUCATION:Organising theme – theories – action SCIENCE OF EDUCATION Research-based approach THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE GUIDING PRINCIPLE – GENERAL IDEA BASE OF TEACHING Theories models IC AC ADEM SE THEORY – PRACTICE TI XPER INTERACTION CONCEPTUALISATION OF ACTION E Teaching Planning Evaluating PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE EVERYDAY ACTION PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF TEACHING (Kansanen, 1994; Krokfors, 2005)
THE PROCEDURE OF GUIDED REFLECTION IN TEACHING PRACTICE PERIODS HOT SYSTEM COOL SYSTEM Incident CRITICAL INCIDENT LESSON Incident Commonplace classroom event Chosen by the teacher Classroom Incident events Criticality is defined according to teacher’s conscious intentions to Incident develop her-/himself professionally PORTFOLIO max STIMULATED RECALL weeks, VIDEOTAPING REFLECTIVE DISCUSSION 2 days INTERVIEW months, years Focus on What happened? What happened in this incident? teacher’s Why? Why this incident important and action What did you think about? meaningful? Why? How has this incident affected to your thinking and actions? What is the more general meaning chers dent tea aching of this incident in wider context? tu four s al te uring fin What can/will you do d with that you have understood? practice
CHANGES IN THE FOCUS OF REFLECTION:RESEARCH RESULTS Reflection in STR-interviews – a hot stance Reflection in reflective discussions – a cooler stance Reflection in portfolio presentations – a coolest stance The procedure of guided reflection 100 90 80 70 60 self 50 task 40 impact 30 20 10 0 str rd portf
TEACHER EDUCATORS’ UNDERSTANDINGOF THE RESEARCH-BASED APPROAC(Toom et al., 2008; 2010)Four dimensions I The context – Academic teacher education II The approach – Main organising theme of teacher education III The content – Curriculum of teacher education IV The aim – Teacher’s pedagogical thinking
THE RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCH-BASEDAPPROACH TO TEACHER’S WORK(Toom et al., 2008) The research-based approach is seen clearly relevant to the teacher’s work. Teachers are actively involved in curriculum development and different evaluation processes. Teacher’s work includes multi-professional collaboration. The school is no longer a static workplace for which the teacher education prepares students: future teachers need dynamic competencies.
THE STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS OF CLASS TEACHER EDUCATION COMMUNICATION AND ORIENTING STUDIES 25 ECTS300 ECTS MAIN SUBJECT STUDIES CULTURAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND 50 ECTS PEDAGOGICAL BASES OF EDUCATION Education RESEARCH STUDIES IN EDUCATION 70 ECTS 140 ECTS Research methods Bachelor’s thesis Master’s thesisMASTER’S DEGREE TEACHING PRACTICE 20 ECTS MINOR SUBJECT STUDIES MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES 60 ECTS IN SUBJECTS TAUGHT IN SCHOOL 120 ECTS OPTIONAL MINOR SUBJECT STUDIES 60 ECTS OPTIONAL STUDIES 15 ECTS
THE STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS OF SUBJECT TEACHER EDUCATION COMMUNICATION AND OPTIONAL STUDIES 60 sp300 sp MAIN SUBJECT STUDIES A SCHOOL SUBJECT A degree in the respective faculty 120 sp Includes a Master thesisMASTER’S DEGREE MINOR SUBJECT STUDIES ANOTHER SCHOOL SUBJECT 60 sp 120 sp PEDAGOGICAL STUDIES 60 sp Education Subject didactics Teaching practice
HOW TO BECOME – AND STAY – AS A REFLECTIVE TEACHER (Krokfors 2005)Pedagogical core contents RESEARCH STUDIES Reflective teacher STUDIES IN EDUCATION THEORY PRACTICE PRACTICUM STUDIES IN SUBJECT DIDACTICS Pre-service education In-service education
WEB SITESDepartment of Teacher Education/Helsinkihttp://www.helsinki.fi/teachereducation/Finnish National Board of Educationhttp://www.oph.fi/english