Day 2 frozen desserts
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  • 1. Chapter 19 Frozen Desserts © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Introduction: Definition of Frozen Desserts
    • Churned frozen dessert
      • The mixture is constantly agitated during freezing
      • Result in a smoother texture
      • Ice cream, sorbet, gelato, frozen yogurt
    • Still-frozen dessert
      • Granita, frozen mousse, parfait, etc.
      • After prepared and assembled, they are left in freezer until solid state
      • Whipped egg whites or cream are incorporated to aerate the base
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Physical Structure
    • Physically complex and unstable mixture is stabilized at low storage temperature
    • Mixture of gas, liquid and solid
    • Dairy products help to trap air cells, but it also causes instability of water-fat emulsion
    • Emulsifiers
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Basic Ingredients
    • The best results will be achieved by high-quality and flavorful ingredients
    • Balance of flavor and texture
    • The minimum and maximum of specific ingredient content in ice cream formulas should be respected under USDA guideline
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Basic Ingredients
    • Milk/Cream
      • Provides rich dairy flavor as well as rich and creamy texture
      • Available in liquid or powdered form
      • Adding MSNF improves the texture and overrun percentage
      • The average milk fat content in ice cream range 7%-20%
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Basic Ingredients
    • Eggs
      • Custard-style or French custard ice cream contain egg yolk or whole eggs
      • Adds rich flavor and lecithin acts as an emulsifier
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Basic Ingredients
    • Sugar
      • Adds sweetness and balances with other acid or bitter flavorings
      • Provide scoop-able texture by lowering the freezing point
      • Sucrose, dextrose, glucose, corn syrup
      • DE represents a sweetening power of the sugar
      • Overrun is affected by the selection and amount of sugar
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. Basic Ingredients
    • Emulsifiers and Stabilizers
      • Heat shock
      • Emulsifiers maintain the fine texture of frozen desserts by keeping the homogenized water-fat mixture
      • Stabilizers prevent water migration by increasing the viscosity of the solution
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Basic Ingredients
    • Flavorings
      • When designing a formula, consider the affects of ingredients which are high in fat, sugar and alcohol
      • Flavorings can be mixed into the base or infused
      • Inclusions (solid ingredients), sauces and swirls are combined after churning
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Basic Ingredients
    • Fruits
      • Fresh seasonal fruits or commercially available frozen fruit purees
      • Dried and candied fruits
      • Effects of water content of the fruits
    • Nuts
      • Added as whole, crushed or paste form
      • Candying or coating in chocolate or cocoa butter helps to maintain the crunchy texture
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Basic Ingredients
    • Chocolate
      • Used to flavor bases, as an inclusion, coating inclusions or as rippled sauce
      • When used in a base, its fat, sugar and solid content must be considered
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Churned Frozen Desserts
    • In general, they are produced using an ice cream machine
    • The mixture is stirred or churned during freezing to break up the ice crystals
    • Production
      • Preparing the base
      • Aging
      • Freezing
      • Hardening
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Churned Frozen Desserts
    • Production
      • Preparing the Base
        • Blending and heating of the ingredients
        • Pasteurization
        • HTST / LTLT
      • Aging
        • Quick cooling of the base to avoid bacteria growth
        • During aging, the base is held under refrigerated sanitized container
        • Crystallization of fat globules
        • Emulsifier and stabilizer fully activated
        • Blending of the flavorings and colorings
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Churned Frozen Desserts
    • Production
      • Freezing
        • Three structural components: fat globules, ice crystals and air bubbles
        • The mixture is continuously aerated
        • Small crystals are created by a dasher constantly scraping on the sides of the canister
        • Remove from the ice cream machine when the mixture is soft-serve consistency
        • Inclusions are added after churning
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Churned Frozen Desserts
    • Production
      • Overrun
        • The measure of additional volume the ice cream acquires during churning
        • Use of emulsifiers
        • Provides lightness and good mouth feel but also can dilute the flavor
      • Hardening
        • After freezing and inclusions are added, lower the temperature quickly to prevent water migration and a coarse texture
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Churned Frozen Desserts
    • Ice Cream
      • Philadelphia ice cream
        • Uncooked mixture of cream, sugar and flavorings
        • Grainy and icy texture
      • French “custard” style ice cream
        • Cooked mixture of milk, cream, whole eggs or yolks and sugar
        • Must contain a minimum of 1.4% egg solids under USDA regulation
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Churned Frozen Desserts
    • Gelato
      • Dense consistency and intense flavor
      • Production very similar to ice cream
    • Sorbet
      • Fruit or vegetable juice or puree, sugar syrup and acid, no fat or dairy
      • Lower overrun rate
      • Smooth texture created by a careful controlling over freezing stage
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. Churned Frozen Desserts
    • Granita
      • Fruit or vegetable puree, juice, wine, alcohol, coffee and tea
      • The mixture is stirred during freezing to prevent large ice crystals from forming
      • Sugar, salt and alcohol lowers the freezing point
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. Still-Frozen Desserts
    • Do not require an ice cream machine
    • The base is aerated with whipped cream or egg foam to provide light texture
      • Frozen mousse
      • Frozen parfait
      • Frozen soufflés
      • Semifreddo
      • Bombe
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. Conclusion
    • Simple preparation
    • Endless combination texture and flavor
    • Technical knowledge of physical structure and balance of ingredients
    © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.