PUBLIC SPEAKING: AN INTRODUCTIONENG 211: PUBLIC SPEAKING AND DEBATE
WHAT IS PUBLIC SPEAKING?• Public speaking is speech making before a large body of audience in a formal situation wherein you, the speaker, display your talents for eloquence and oratory.• Public speaking is communication of ideas using words and actions to let others know what is happening in your head.• Public speaking is an art of facing a group of people and communicating to them your thoughts and feelings by means of effective speech.
A SIMPLE DEFINITION…• Public speaking is a process of conveying ideas, of sharing opinions and information. • It is highly social • Individualistic • Unites the speaker and the audience
HOW DOES PUBLIC SPEAKING AS A COMMUNICATION WORK?• How does communication work?• Can a person always share meanings with another?• How can you tell if you are really communicating?• What elements of speaking must you consider in order that you become an effective communicator of ideas?
WHAT FACTORS MAKE UP EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SPEAKING?
SPEECH DOES NOT EXIST IN ISOLATION! •A speaker The necessary •An audiencerequirements in a speech act: •An ocassion
PERSONALITYOnly people with interestingpersonality make goodspeakers!!
PERSONALITY…• Personal Grooming: • As a speaker, is your dress appropriate to the occasion? • Are you neat and comfortable? • Do you choose clothes that will establish basic similarities with your audience so that you make them feel at ease and comfortable with you? • Are your clothes well-pressed? Your shoes well-shined? • Hands and fingernails clean? • Is your hair neat and tidy? • Are you untidy or careless? • Do you take pains to look your best in public appearances?
PERSONALITY…• Attitudes • Do you show poise and confidence through good posture while sitting or standing? • Do you stand or sit at ease or are you sloppy? • What facial expression do you show? Alert and attentive? • Do you communicate a feeling of pleasantness because you assume a friendly and an amiable attitude towards your audience? • Do you appear indifferent? Apathetic? Lazy? Subdued? Timid or shy? • Do you display a rigid, tense, too facial expression as to make your audience uncomfortable?
INTELLIGENCE• Common sense• Tact• Good Taste• Wide Interest• Self Criticism
INTEGRITY OR VIRTUE “Never under any circumstanceor for any reward tell anaudience what you yourself donot believe in or are evenindifferent about.” - Albert J.Beverage
TRAINING1. Training tells the speaker what to say.2. Training teaches the speaker how to say the speech.3. Training develops the speaker’s confidence in his ability to communicate effectively.4. Training develops creative but critical thinking rather than a mechanical one.5. Training aids the speaker to achieve the main objective of effective communication – to create a particular effect on a particular audience.
TECHNIQUE• Voice – the sound produced by the vibration of the vocal cords• Voice pitch – the highness or lowness of tone• Voice volume – the loudness or carrying power of voice• Voice quality – that which distinguishes one voice from another when pitch, volume, and duration are the same (nasal, mellow).• Speech rate and pause – number of words uttered per minute and the cessation of speaking within or between sentences.
TECHNIQUE…• Enunciation and pronunciation – the formation of voice into words, manner of utterance• Gestures – movement of arms, shoulders, hands or head.• Posture – position and bearing of the body• Facial expression – general appearance of the face.• Organization of thought – logical arrangement of ideas• Composition – manner of formulating ideas into effective sentences.
• Phrasing – the grouping of words into small units of thoughts• Audience contact – establishing mental contact with the audience by talking to its members• Motivation – the use of appeals and subject matter which are important to the audience and induce audience action
ASSESSMENT:• Prepare a short speech of not more than 2 minutes in response to the following question:• What can you contribute to make your country a better place to live in… as an individual? as a member of the community? as a professional?