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Seeing without Sight- designing with haptics for the visually impaired
 

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    Seeing without Sight- designing with haptics for the visually impaired Seeing without Sight- designing with haptics for the visually impaired Document Transcript

    • Seeing WithoutSight:Designing with Hapticsfor the Visually Impaired
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________Table of ContentsABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................................... 31. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 32. PROBLEM DEFINITION............................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Background ......................................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 An Illustrative Case (Scenario) ............................................................................................................ 63. SCOPE OF DESIGN ..................................................................................................................................... 7 3.1 Target Audience .................................................................................................................................. 7 3.2 Assistive Functionality......................................................................................................................... 7 3.3 Limitations and Considerations .......................................................................................................... 84. DESIGN SOLUTION .................................................................................................................................... 9 4.1 Biologically inspired design ................................................................................................................. 9 4.2 Determination on Onset (Design Principles) ...................................................................................... 9 4.3 Conceptual Design ............................................................................................................................ 115 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................................................... 12 5.1 The Planning Stage ............................................................................................................................ 12 5.1.1 Google Map plug-in.................................................................................................................... 12 5.1.2 Magnetic Clay tablet .................................................................................................................. 13 5.1.3 Haptic Pen .................................................................................................................................. 14 5.2 The Execution Stage .......................................................................................................................... 15 5.2.1 Ultra Cane add-on ...................................................................................................................... 15 5.2.2 Pressure Jacket........................................................................................................................... 166. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN......................................................................................................................... 18 6.1 Basic System Components ................................................................................................................ 18 Hardware ................................................................................................................................................ 187. CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................................... 19REFERECES................................................................................................................................................... 20APPENDIXINDIVIDUAL REPORTS 2|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________ABSTRACTHaptic communication is intuitive and easy to learn providing a new and unique method for all users,especially for the blind and visually impaired. This paper discusses how this technology and mode ofinteraction can be used to develop a design to help aid such users in planning and navigating a journeyindependently. Different considerations of the user’s ability, perception, environment and experiencehave impacted the features of the devices conceptualized. Some of the existing devices have beenspecialized to include and be equipped to have more comprehensive interaction.KeywordsHaptic Interaction, assistive technology,1. INTRODUCTIONOur perceptions of the world arise as a combination of correlated input across several of the senses.Although sensory modalities such as vision and audition have been investigated in detail, our mostintimate sense, touch, has been somehow neglected until the last decade. Consider the act of hapticallyexploring an object. Touching an objects surface often simultaneously yields information regarding thecompliance, texture, shape and heat conductive qualities of the object. The touching process may alsobe perceived aurally, for example, a tap or scrape, and is usually supported by visual stimulus regardingthe objects global structure and surface properties. Indeed, it is this correlative information that has ledresearchers to hypothesize that touch is more of a "reality sense" than the other four human senses(Taylor, Lederman & Gibson, 1973). In truth, it is likely not only the touch sensations themselves thatgive rise to this impression of "reality", for as our simple example has shown, several other senses areintrinsically involved. Our perception of something touched as being somehow more "real" may also bea result of the fact that, historically, sensory illusions have rarely appealed to the sense of touch.When a human subject tries to determine his own position with respect to salient points, his entire bodyis considered as an object of the environment. This spatial knowledge requires the capability of usingour sensory modalities in the environment to identify with it. In particular, during navigation, i.e. adisplacement of the entire body, the subject has both to gain knowledge of the position of his starting 3|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________and final points and to update his current position. Since vision is predominantly involved in thisprocess, identifying the common landmarks remains a major difficulty for blind people duringnavigation.In this respect, virtual reality constitute valuable tools to provide blind people with anaturalistic and intuitive interface dedicated to the development of spatial knowledge. In particular,they can take advantage of haptic maps when getting the cartographic information via a computercontrolled, motorized device held in the hand. Such a device produces force feed-backs when the usertouches a virtual object. Rice, Jacobson, Golledge and Jones (2005) suggest that in some circumstanceshaptics can substitute for other sensory modalities like vision.Jansson and Pederson (2005) attempted to enable blind people to touch virtual geographicalenvironments with a haptic mouse and with a Phantom Omni device, but the benefits of these newdevices do not show real improvement. Later Jacobson et al. (2005) use a force-feedback mouse andauditory labels or directions to give a mixed modal interface that allows more comprehensive feedback.Here, in our preliminary study, we try to enhance the capability of a blind or visually impaired to accessgeographical information he needs to navigate via an haptic device and via a tactile map. 4|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. PROBLEM DEFINITION2.1 Background The word navigation can be understood in several ways: when referring to navigation, it can mean that some (motor) vehicle, like a car, an airplane, or a ship is driven. Then again, navigation means browsing in the World Wide Web or some (graphical) interface. In some cases, the word navigation is used to describe a situation, when someone is guides or controls someone else, or a machine (Oxford English Dictionary, 2008). In haptic navigation, the user has a device, which leads them to the desired location by using feedback based on the sense of touch. Feedback can be given via vibrating, pulses, by pushing and pulling (Amemiya et al., 2008), or by leaning to the needed direction (Frey, 2007). Sometimes the device can use several haptic feedbacks at the same time [Wang and O’Friel], or a combination of different modalities [IDEO]. In general, the haptic communication is one-sided: the device gives output, but the user does not communicate with the device, not at least with haptic interaction. One can use haptic navigation in a virtual environment, browsing graphical interface, or moving in the real world. One can find some techniques produced for haptic navigation in graphical interface: for instance, it is possible to make large amounts of data more understandable by using haptics and haptic navigation, like information visualization does. This is useful for example for visually impaired users, as they are able to access information usually described in visual or graphical means. Also, this might mean that browsing is faster and easier, as navigation is not based on reading or using screen readers. Several haptic navigational devices for navigating in real world have been developed. Some of the devices have been made for visually impaired (e.g. [Amemiya et al., 2008; Amemiya and Sugiyama, 2008]), for special situations, where visual and auditory channels are taken, like when driving a car, navigating a ship, or flying, as well as various common use, in various situation for various people. 5|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________2.2 An Illustrative Case (Scenario) Mike is a 20 year old university student who recently got into an accident that temporarily impaired his vision. Being used to his independence he finds it frustrating to depend on others to assist him and take him places. He has made himself accustomed to using a cane in order to feel his way around home and known local streets, however it has not been easy. Trying to find other assistive devices that might help overcome this disability, Mike discovers that most require him to learn Braille or to train in using them before he can take it out in the streets. Mike requires a solution that would take into consideration the following features: • Interaction with a computer with the aid of some device that would be able to let the user receive haptic feedback from his actions. • Ability to plan a journey with optional alternative routes to select from. Induce a learning function in order to get familiar with the path and any landmarks that might be associated. • Automated guidance on the roads keeping in mind to not hinder the real-time environment. Independent navigation along the decided path without the use of map. • Prohibition on being led astray or going wayward to lose the path. Monitoring of the route selected and in case of unforeseen obstacles, instantaneous actions so as to not hinder the user. • Ability to hide away any assistive device being used in a given situation or environment if the user chooses to do so. Flexibility of some functionalities still being active after stowing away the visible device. 6|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. SCOPE OF DESIGN3.1 Target Audience The device is supportive of any individually that is either partially or fully visually impaired. It must be independent of differentiation on the basis of age, gender, culture and literacy. However, the user must have the mental capacity of understanding what is being perceived by his senses. The user must also have an instinct according to which he would be required to react and use the device.3.2 Assistive Functionality The haptic interactive device solution should chiefly allow the planning of a trip and thereafter the successful implementation of it on the road. The design solution should provide the user: i) Interaction capacity with a computer as well as a map for route planning. It must be include a device capable of giving haptic feedback to the user according to the actions he undertakes or commands he gives. Special consideration must be given to the different range of visual impairments that exist while designing. ii) Independent planning and exploration of a map must be allowed for the user to decide on the route he wants to take for his journey. It should include techniques of allowing the user to form a mental image as well as aid his learning of the route and its features of its location. iii) Safely and autonomously complete the journey on the decided route keeping in mind unforeseen obstacles that might come in the way and environmental constraints that might hinder the user’s concentration and progress. On the level of non-functionality, the devised solution must be able to meet the standards of being: i) Trustworthy – The device should maximize the user’s trust and behave in a manner that is predicted by the user. Actions undertaken by the device must be consistent and feedback must be given to ensure the maintenance of user’s confidence. 7|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ii) Secure- The device must be safe in its physical form so as not to induce injury to the user or his surroundings. It must not incur errors and in case of such an event, instant action must be taken to ensure no harm is done. iii) Aid in perception- The device must be aesthetical pleasing and have minimalistic design. The interface must be easy to understand and the content must be appropriate. The functionalities of the device must be obvious and shouldn’t require training for use. 3.3 Limitations and Considerations While designing for the visually impaired considerations must be given that not all users are blind. Most suffer from partial loss of vision and might be capable of identifying visual cues as well. Some users might suffer from light sensitivity but be able to make out forms with the help of shadows cast. A lack of peripheral vision as well as extreme near-or far-sightedness is also considered as visual impairments. Thus the challenges that this design faced were: (a) What mode of interaction would the user be allowed to have with the system/device? (b) How would the device interact with the user without distracting them from their environment or task (c) What actions of the device would be automated and which should allow user manipulation? 8|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. DESIGN SOLUTION“All design is redesign” is a popular cliché in design research that resonated with case-based reasoningbecause it suggests that the design of a new artifact must build on the knowledge of existing designs ofa similar kind and must draw upon the experiences of designing similar artifacts. Design practitionershave applied the case-based paradigm for numerous classes of design problems in a variety of domainsincluding architecture, computing, and engineering.In this paper we consider biologically inspired (or biomimetic) design that uses biological systems asanalogues for addressing design problems (Benyus 1997).4.1 Biologically inspired design Biomimicry is an important, widespread and growing movement that espouses looking at nature for inspiration and potential solutions for solving design problems in various domains. In engineering in particular, adaptation of functions and mechanisms of biological systems has led to new and innovative designs in a variety of domains such as sensors, materials, mechanics and mechanical systems, robotics, computers and computing (Bar-Cohen 2006). One goal of the research conducted for this project was to understand the cognitive processes of biologically inspired design with the aim of promoting it through the development of better design concept, product educational techniques and computational tools. This was made possible by close observation of everyday life and activities and a study of researched papers on the anatomy of walking, synchronized walking and guided walking (details can be found in the bibliography).4.2 Determination on Onset (Design Principles) Before setting out to conceptualize the design solution certain principles need to be determined and decided upon that would serve as the corner stone upon which the design is built. As an assistive technology for the visually impaired our devised solutions must meet the following features of: 9|Page
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Learnabitlity – Designing an assistive device for impairments require it to be an easy to use system. The user must feel comfortable in carrying out the task from the first instance. In order to achieve this certain features such as familiarity, generalisability, predictability and simplicity must be considered. Using biomimicry would ensure that this criterion is met sufficiently as anything inspired by nature is built-in and considered a natural instinct. This implies that not much training would be required for the user to get accustomed to using the device regardless of their technical and mental knowledge or skill. • Memorability- Another usability feature to design for while considering assistive devices is the ability of a user to remember and recollect how to function a system without having to relearn it. Reestablishing proficiency is an important aspect in this design as there is no room for errors and/or increasing the mental workload of a user. In order to avoid any memorability issues that might be faced, thorough understanding needs to be established of user’s expectations. An action from the user must give a feedback/reaction that is being expected. In context of haptics, feedback must be accurate to help bring users as close to reality as possible. • Efficiency- Once the device has been mastered by the user, efficiency is the measure of how fast a task may be accomplished. However, given our previous usability features, the same needs to be heeded for users that have just been introduced or are learning the device. This must be ensured chiefly for the safety of the user. To design for efficiency there must be a control on the possibility of errors that might be incurred by the device. As such an assistive device should be save of error events but in its occurrence, recovery must be quick and effective. Feedback given by the system must me regular and smooth as any delay or lack in it would lead to hesitation and confusion from the user. Since the haptic solution is mostly automated, feedback must be swift and accurate in maintaining its delivery. 10 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________4.3 Conceptual DesignFigure: The design solution perceived with the help of technology and biomimicry.On the first stage of design conception we tried to meet our said requirements by researching and usinga combination of technologies that seemed to be relevant and supportive of the discovered problems invisual impairment and mapping them to natural instinct based solutions that we are born with. Thiswould reduce the mental processing of the users that set out to achieve their goal.For the planning phase, plug-ins was designed for Google Maps that would be made accessible to theuser via a magnetic clay tablet equipped with a haptic pen. It uses and implements the theory ofcreating mental imagery through the feel of texture and the help of drawing.In the stage of independently conducting the actual travel, supportive device such as the cane was usedas a primary and instinct based probe for walking. An additional pressure jacket was devised to helpinduce the feel of assisted walking without the presence of another individual. 11 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________5 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT5.1 The Planning StageThe human brain utilizes complex, still unknown procedures in order to perform intuitive tasks such asto decode the information stored in maps. These procedures are very difficult to imitate usingcomputers. It is obvious that all common maps are perceived using the visual modality thus makingmaps inaccessible for special population categories like the visually impaired. Moreover, since maps arethe major means of navigating into unknown spaces, it is more than clear that the visually impaired arenot able to use this means.5.1.1 Google Map plug-inThe first requirement of the user is to be able to use a computer to access a map to plan a route for histrip. Google maps is a web mapping service that is provided free and offers street maps as well as routeplanner for travelling by foot, car or public transport. It also allows the identification of local landmarksand provides satellite images. The map has a feature of terrain view that allows users to get a bird’s eyeview of the landscape.The design solution is able to adapt and cater for the three main modules within its system: i) An audio-to-text plug-in: Upon receiving a cue, the audio command given by the user is registered as text in the appropriate text field for the registration of travelling points. ii) Tablet-PC input: To facilitate haptic computer interaction, a specialized tablet is wirelessly connected to the PC for map exploration. This ensures that the user can use the device is platform independent as long as the user installs the plug-ins and pairs the device to a PC. iii) Disabling/ Deactivating screen: For the user’s ability to explore the route selected and any forming a mind map without accidentally clicking on links or other map features, the screen is grayed out or disabled except for the path decided upon survey. This restricts the user from encountering any unwanted navigation or errors. 12 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________5.1.2 Magnetic Clay tabletThe visually impaired learn new things with the help of ‘feel’. Keeping to this natural habit of creatingmental images a design was developed to create a Digital Impression Board that would be given theform of a tablet to communicate with the user’s computer and imprint images onto the board. This usesthe concept of developing a display of magnetic fluid that can take shape by manipulation ofelectromagnetic forces (Takeno, 1999). Figure: Electromagnetic forces change board’s texture to imprint the chosen routeThe impression tablet is designed to enable the following functionality: i) Imprint of map route: The board has an acrylic sheet that changes shape to take form of the image being projected on the PC screen. This feature would ensure that the user’s chosen route can be interacted with and explored upon. It would also enable the user to learn and form an imagery of what the path looks like before actuating the journey. ii) Customizable button initiators: At the side of the board are a few customizable buttons that can serve as cue initiators for the user to give his feedback to the computer. In case where the user wants to switch between tabs and alternate routes, he can use the buttons to toggle and prompt audio commentary. These button initiators are also mapped to the design of the on-screen Google map functionality to maintain consistency in design as well as to form modularity. 13 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3 CMT3321________________________________________________________________________________________________________5.1.3 Haptic PenAnother primary instinct that we adapt to from an early age is the ability to trace out or draw using ahandheld pen. While advanced haptic mouse have been developed for the purpose of computerinteraction for the visually impaired, a pen would serve as a more natural and adaptive device thatrequires less to no learnability and is easy to use. Thumb--press button for Finger-tip grip for haptic In-built microphone to In Automated Nib-changer speech- -to-text prompt feedback receive voice commands for texture probe Figure: Haptic pen for PC PC-tablet interactionAlong with mimicking the act of drawing, the haptic pen is equipped to handle four more functionalities: i) Automated Nib-changer: Allows the user to feel the different textures of the selected route changer: with the theory of probing. Different paths such as sandy, rocky, slippery can be experienced with the pressure and coarseness felt by the nib of the pen. This was adapted from the experience of a common fountain pen’s nib. ii) Thumb-press button: Initiates the audio press audio-to-text plug-in so as to avoid any accidental in transcription of voice that is not meant to be a user response to the system. iii) Finger-tip grip: The tips of our fingers are highly sensitive to the feel of surface tension. The grip strip provides haptic feedback to the user using vibrations and pulse to indicate different messages. iv) In-built microphone: The tip of the haptic pen carries an in built microphone that gets in-built activated with the prompt of the thumb press button to receive voice commands from the thumb-press user for transcription. 14 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________5.2 The Execution Stage5.2.1 Ultra Cane add-onOne of devices that have been developed successfully and is dominant in the market is the Ultra Canewhich uses ultrasonic rays for object detection and swings away from them on impact. It also has a setof vibratory buttons that gives feedback to the user but these require training for full adaption. Whileusing the cane as a part of the design solution we made the following additions to its functions: Handle covered to give a gripping/handholding feedback Underside of Haptic torch integrated with GPS /compass Rigid link for probe texture detection Figure: Modifications done to the Ultra Cane to include additional functionalities i) Probe-texture detection- The chief feature added to the ultra cane was the ability for the user to explore a texture with a probe that provides a rigid link between the skin and the surface. The fingers hold the probe that comes in contact with the surface which then reflects its contour properties onto the link that constitutes texture . ii) GPS tracking automation- While the original cane depends on the user to find the way and serves just as an obstacle detector, the integration of a compass in the device enables the 15 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________ synchronisation of the planned route of the user which then automates the directional functionality of the design solution (read about the force jacket for more details). iii) Security- While designs are often made unobtrusive in nature in consideration of people with impairments, we need to consider the implications of the same. The cane ensures the user an exploration space around him which would also enables him to react to any feedback well within time. Hiding away such an assistive device would result in others (in the environment) dismissing the user as someone with normal capacity of reflexes. iv) Retractability- Having discussed the need for keeping part of the device visible and in the open we have also considered situations in which the user might choose to be invisible. In such cases, the cane has the added benefit of retracting into its own handle and would appear to be no more than a handheld device to observers.5.2.2 Pressure JacketAfter modulating the design solution into different segment and conducting research on the anatomy ofwalking it became apparent that a cane, given its highly developed functionalities, would not suffice intaking impromptu actions. Since we were focusing on the use of haptic forces and biomimicry, weconsidered the implementation of a virtual assistive walk in which the user would feel that he is beingguided by another (except that he would not need the help of another individual or guide dog).Although the idea seemed to be easy enough to envision, picking the right design was underspeculation. In the end, a wearable device seemed to cater to the functional as well as remain out of theway of the user to enable him free hand space. Understanding the mechanism of assistive walkingenabled us to detect the points of pressure in a human body that can be used to stop, sway or rotatefrom a path of action. This was inspired by the technique of how a child is hand guided on the road bytheir parent or guardian. 16 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3 CMT3321________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Force exerted at points for Shoulder and Waist studied to ‘pulling’, ‘pushing’ sensation be the turning points in assistive/guided walking Figure: Navigating without Maps Pointing you to the right direction with the help of force exertion Maps-The wearable assistive jacket chiefly has two pressure pads to navigate the user according to the accordindirectional feedback being received from the modified ultra cane. Each of these points are used for: i) Stopping- In case of obstacles or any detected hindrance, the jacket along with the cane’s handle can enforce a pressure like to that of a hand pulling. This is felt mostly on the forearm, wrist and shoulder. ii) Directing- If the user is led astray from the decided route then the cane sends an alert signal to the jacket and pressure is exerted on the points of shoulder and waist to rotate /push them into the right direction.There is however some concern as to how feasible this would be after development in a realenvironment. Especially given the time constraint in which such an action needs to be undertaken, it ishard to ensure that the user would be able to react to the forces he experiences. As seen with children dwho are guided on the streets, the lower part of the body is still in motion after they have been pulledto a halt by their parent. 17 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. IMPLEMENTATION PLANIn order to implement the design concept and make it feasible in the real world, the product planningwas based on the huge amount of market surveys available on the existing assistive devices that havebeen developed and their popularity. Users are seen to be comfortable in carrying on with a productthat they are used to rather than experimenting with new concepts, therefore, in this design some ofthe trends found through the survey are directly implemented in the product. For example, the existingtrust and popularity of Google Maps ensure that users would be willing to try a beta version of a newplug-in. Similarly, the ultra cane is already adopted amongst the target audience and modification doneto the same device would be more acceptable than to introduce something entirely new.6.1 Basic System ComponentsHardwareDevice Specification Function 1. Planning PC with internet connection, To access the internet and Browser, Bluetooth navigate using interaction device Magnetic Clay Tablet Texture imprintation Electromagnetic fluid display Buttons Haptic Pen For user interaction with board -inbuilt microphone - Vibration - thumb press button - Texture - texture nibs - Command prompt 2. Implementation Ultra Cane For navigating the streets - GPS device to embed - Route navigation - Texture Probe - Feeling route - Pressure Pad glove - Feedback - Sensory rigid handle - Feedback Wearable pressure jacket For realistic haptic feedback - Sync sensors - Connected to cane - Pressure pads - Force feedback 18 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________SoftwareDevice Specification Function 1. Planning Browser To access the internet and Google Maps navigate using interaction device Software for tablet to pc connection Interaction Haptic Pen For user interaction with PC - Speech to Text plug in - Command prompt 2. Implementation Ultra Cane For navigating the streets - GPS navigation maps - Route navigation - Bluetooth - Sync with PC Wearable pressure jacket For realistic haptic feedback7. CONCLUSIONHaptics open up a possibility for navigation to be novel and cognitively lighter. Haptic navigation has lotsof potential, both in virtual environments and in real world. The benefits it offers for special needs andfor all others are large. Yet, more research and development is needed, so haptic navigation could bemore commonly used. Currently, haptics can be one element used in navigational devices, together withother modalities. Perhaps also in the future there is need to use several modalities in communicationbetween the user and navigation device – after all, as the users are multimodal, should the device bealso.Through the process of this coursework an in-depth knowledge was obtained of the differentconsiderations that need to be heeded while designing for the visually impaired and the importance offollowing a self-iterative design process in order to develop a feasible and realistic design concept. 19 | P a g e
    • Seeing Without Sight: Designing with Haptics for the Visually Impaired CMT3321- Coursework 3________________________________________________________________________________________________________REFERECES Adolph, K., Eppler, M., Gibson, E. 1993, "Crawling versus Walking Infants" Perception of Affordances for Locomotion over Sloping Surfaces", Child Development, Vol. 64, No. 4, pp. 1158-1174. Amemiya, T., Ando, H. And Maeda, T., 2008. Lead-me interface for a pulling sensation from hand-held devices. ACM Trans.Appl.Percept., 5(3), pp. 1-17. Amemiya, T. And Sugiyama, H., 2008. Design of a Haptic Direction Indicator for Visually Impaired People in Emergency Situations. Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Springer, pp. 1141-1144. Benyus, J. (1997) Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature.William Morrow. G. Jansson and P. Pedersen. Obtaining geographical information from a virtual map with a haptic mouse. In Proceedings of XXII International Cartographic Conference (ICC2005), 9-16 July, A Coruna, 2005, Spain. Klatzky, R.L., & Lederman, S.J. (1999). Tactile roughness perception with a rigid link interposed between skin and surface. Perception & Psychophysics, 61. 591-607. Klatzky, R.L., & Lederman, S.J.(2002). Perceiving texture through a probe. In M.I., McLaughlin, J.P.Hespanha, & G.S. Sukhatme (Eds.), Touch in virtual environments (pp. 180-193). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. M. Rice, R.D. Jacobson, R.G. Golledge, and D. Jones. Design Considerations for Haptic and Auditory Map Interfaces. Cartography and Geographic Information Society, 2005. OED, Oxford English Dictionary 2008 - last update [Homepage of Oxford University Press], [Online]. Available: http://dictionary.oed.com/ [9/25, 2008]. R.G. Golledge, M. Rice, and R.D. Jacobson. A Commentary on the Use of Touch for Accessing On-Screen Spatial Representations: The Process of Experiencing Haptic Maps and Graphics. The Professional Geographer, 57(3):339–349, 2005. Takeno, M. (1999), Appearance of Magnetism 3, Experiment of shape using magnetic fluid, FORMA, 14(4), 363-364. Taylor, M.M., Lederman, S.J. & Gibson, R.H., (1973) Tactual Perception of Texture, In Carterette, E. & Friedman, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Perception. Vol. III. New York: Academic Press, pp. 251-272. WANG, C. and O’FRIEL, K., MOMO: a haptic navigation device. Available: http://momobots.com/ [9/22, 2008]. 20 | P a g e