3 Fall Lambing 10 25 06

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3 Fall Lambing 10 25 06

  1. 1. Fall Lambing: Overcoming Seasonality of the Ewe <ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Erin Windorski </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul>Questions for Today
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul>Questions for Today
  4. 4. Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe? <ul><li>Two main factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe? <ul><li>Two main factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep in a temperate climate with cold winter and warm summer tend to be more seasonal. It is natural for the sheep to lamb when the food is plentiful in the spring. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe? <ul><li>Two main factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Day Length </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anovulatory Breeding Pregnancy Lambing Anovulatory Seasonal Breeding Cycle in Sheep Winter Fall Summer Summer Spring Decreasing Day Length Increasing Day Length Geisert, 1999
  8. 8. Why are sheep seasonal breeders? <ul><li>Two main factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Day Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reaction between the amount of light and the amount of melatonin produced </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Decreasing Daylight STIMUALTION
  10. 10. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Decreasing Daylight STIMUALTION
  11. 11. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Increasing Daylight SUPPRESSION
  12. 12. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Increasing Daylight SUPPRESSION
  13. 13. <ul><li>Supply and Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates peaks and valleys on the price curve of lamb. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply = Demand = Price </li></ul>What does seasonal reproduction do to the supply of lamb throughout the year?
  14. 14. How does seasonality effect the supply of lamb? Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct U.S. Monthly Lamb Slaughter in 2004 and 2005 Source: USDA/NASS Nov Dec 175 200 225 250 275 1,000 head Sheep and lamb slaughter Dollars per cwt 95 100 105 110 90 Slaughter lamb prices
  15. 15. <ul><li>Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul>Questions for Today
  16. 16. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? <ul><li>Better use of facilities and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Having lambs available for market all year long </li></ul>
  17. 17. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? <ul><li>Instead of having empty barns 9 months out of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your barns more by having a fall and spring lambing. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? <ul><li>Fall lambing allows for taking advantage of fall forage during late gestation and early lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Better weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>More time to get lambs to a high market weight for the higher market prices during the spring </li></ul>
  19. 19. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? <ul><li>Taking advantage of the price increases during low supply of lamb. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct U.S. Monthly Lamb Slaughter in 2004 and 2005 Source: USDA/NASS Nov Dec 175 200 225 250 275 1,000 head Sheep and lamb slaughter Dollars per cwt 95 100 105 110 90 Slaughter lamb prices
  21. 21. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? <ul><li>Taking advantage of the price increases during low supply of lamb. </li></ul><ul><li>Change North Dakota’s Monthly Supply of lamb by using out of season lambing techniques. </li></ul>
  22. 22. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Source: USDA/NASS Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 Relative no. of head Sheep and lamb slaughter Potential North Dakota Monthly Lamb Slaughter Relative dollars per cwt 2 3 4 5 1 Slaughter lamb prices
  23. 23. <ul><li>Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul><ul><li>What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe? </li></ul>Questions for Today
  24. 24. How can we overcome seasonality in ewes? Normal percentage of ewes in heat per month
  25. 25. What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe? <ul><li>Getting ewe to produce hormones naturally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ram Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treating ewes with hormones that are normally seen during her reproductive cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progestins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonadotropins </li></ul></ul>ARTIFICAL NATURAL
  26. 26. Ram introduction <ul><li>The ewe needs to be completely isolated from the ram for 60 days. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of a viable ram will induce estrus in the ewe which is caused by release of gonadotropins. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ewe lamb selection <ul><li>Ewe lamb selection is based on the idea that being seasonal is partially genetic. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, any ewes bred out of season are more likely to have ewe lambs that will do the same. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done in two phases: challenge phase and clean-up phase. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ewe lamb selection <ul><li>Challenge phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October and November lambing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep replacement ewe lambs </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Ewe lamb selection <ul><li>Challenge phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October and November lambing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep replacement ewe lambs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean-up Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January lambing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Replacements </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Natural Techniques <ul><li>Ram Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not always effective on all ewes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ewe lamb Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes many breeding seasons to build up a flock </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe? <ul><li>Getting ewe to produce hormones naturally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ram Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treating a ewe with hormones that are normally seen during her reproductive cycle </li></ul>NATURAL ARTIFICAL
  32. 32. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  33. 33. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  34. 34. Progestins: How they work Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 17 <ul><li>Progesterone is produced by the Corpus Luteum (CL) </li></ul><ul><li>CL grows and shrinks producing more and less Progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing levels of Progesterone stimulate ovulation </li></ul>
  35. 35. Artificial Techniques <ul><li>Progestins (active ingredient: P4 or synthetic P4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR™) – Vaginal insert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melengestrol Acetate (MGA™) – Oral (Feed additive) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Progestins <ul><li>CIDRS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inserted Vaginally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 300mg of P 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of $7.50/ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy Rate of 75% - 95% </li></ul></ul>CIDR™
  37. 37. Progestins: CIDR Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Days -12 -6 0 2 Insert CIDR on day -12 Remove CIDR on day 0 Heat in 1-2 days
  38. 38. Progestins <ul><li>MGA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed to ewe twice a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total of 0.3mg/ewe/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost very inexpensive/ewe/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy Rate of 40% - 60% </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Progestins: MGA Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Days -12 -6 0 2 Start feeding MGA on day -12 Stop feeding MGA on day 0 Heat in 1-2 days
  40. 40. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  41. 41. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  42. 42. Gonadotropins: How they work Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 17 <ul><li>Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the growth of follicles so eggs can be shed during ovulation. </li></ul>FSH
  43. 43. Artificial Techniques <ul><li>Gonadotropins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase # lambs born/ewe by stimulating follicle development to release more eggs at ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase synchronization of ovulation, which helps to shorten duration of the lambing season </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Gonadotropins <ul><li>PG600 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mimics the actions of FSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer one shot at time of removal of CIDRs or MGA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5ml dose (400IU PMSG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$5/dose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy rate when used with CIDRs of 85% - 95% out of season </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Gonadotropin: PG600 (with CIDRs) Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Days -12 -6 0 2 Insert CIDR on day -12 Remove CIDR on day 0 Heat in 1-2 days Administer shot of PG600 on day 0
  46. 46. Artificial Techniques <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective at increasing pregnancy rates out of season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MGA is cost efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PG600 is efficient at increasing the # of lambs/ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to synchronize lambing for better management of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More costs than natural methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feeding MGA twice daily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inserting CIDRs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>injecting PG600 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIDRs have limited availability, FDA is working on approval </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Summary <ul><li>Overcoming seasonality of the ewe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can enhance profitability of the producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but it does require time, strict management and some initial costs </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Questions?

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