3 Fall Lambing 10 25 06
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3 Fall Lambing 10 25 06 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Fall Lambing: Overcoming Seasonality of the Ewe
    • by
    • Erin Windorski
  • 2.
    • Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe?
    • What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    • What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    Questions for Today
  • 3.
    • Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe?
    • What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    • What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    Questions for Today
  • 4. Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe?
    • Two main factors:
    • Climate
  • 5. Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe?
    • Two main factors:
    • Climate
      • Sheep in a temperate climate with cold winter and warm summer tend to be more seasonal. It is natural for the sheep to lamb when the food is plentiful in the spring.
  • 6. Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe?
    • Two main factors:
    • Climate
    • Day Length
  • 7. Anovulatory Breeding Pregnancy Lambing Anovulatory Seasonal Breeding Cycle in Sheep Winter Fall Summer Summer Spring Decreasing Day Length Increasing Day Length Geisert, 1999
  • 8. Why are sheep seasonal breeders?
    • Two main factors:
    • Climate
    • Day Length
      • The reaction between the amount of light and the amount of melatonin produced
  • 9. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Decreasing Daylight STIMUALTION
  • 10. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Decreasing Daylight STIMUALTION
  • 11. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Increasing Daylight SUPPRESSION
  • 12. Day Length Melatonin Production COMMUNCIATION VIA HORMONES BRAIN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Increasing Daylight SUPPRESSION
  • 13.
    • Supply and Demand
      • Creates peaks and valleys on the price curve of lamb.
    • Supply = Demand = Price
    What does seasonal reproduction do to the supply of lamb throughout the year?
  • 14. How does seasonality effect the supply of lamb? Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct U.S. Monthly Lamb Slaughter in 2004 and 2005 Source: USDA/NASS Nov Dec 175 200 225 250 275 1,000 head Sheep and lamb slaughter Dollars per cwt 95 100 105 110 90 Slaughter lamb prices
  • 15.
    • Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe?
    • What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    • What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    Questions for Today
  • 16. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality?
    • Better use of facilities and resources
    • Having lambs available for market all year long
  • 17. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality?
    • Instead of having empty barns 9 months out of the year.
    • Use your barns more by having a fall and spring lambing.
  • 18. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality?
    • Fall lambing allows for taking advantage of fall forage during late gestation and early lactation
    • Better weather conditions
    • More time to get lambs to a high market weight for the higher market prices during the spring
  • 19. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality?
    • Taking advantage of the price increases during low supply of lamb.
  • 20. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct U.S. Monthly Lamb Slaughter in 2004 and 2005 Source: USDA/NASS Nov Dec 175 200 225 250 275 1,000 head Sheep and lamb slaughter Dollars per cwt 95 100 105 110 90 Slaughter lamb prices
  • 21. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality?
    • Taking advantage of the price increases during low supply of lamb.
    • Change North Dakota’s Monthly Supply of lamb by using out of season lambing techniques.
  • 22. What are the benefits of overcoming seasonality? Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Source: USDA/NASS Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 Relative no. of head Sheep and lamb slaughter Potential North Dakota Monthly Lamb Slaughter Relative dollars per cwt 2 3 4 5 1 Slaughter lamb prices
  • 23.
    • Why do we see seasonal reproductive activity in the ewe?
    • What are the advantages of overcoming seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    • What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    Questions for Today
  • 24. How can we overcome seasonality in ewes? Normal percentage of ewes in heat per month
  • 25. What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    • Getting ewe to produce hormones naturally
      • Ram Effect
      • Selection
    • Treating ewes with hormones that are normally seen during her reproductive cycle
      • Progestins
      • Gonadotropins
    ARTIFICAL NATURAL
  • 26. Ram introduction
    • The ewe needs to be completely isolated from the ram for 60 days.
    • The introduction of a viable ram will induce estrus in the ewe which is caused by release of gonadotropins.
  • 27. Ewe lamb selection
    • Ewe lamb selection is based on the idea that being seasonal is partially genetic.
    • Therefore, any ewes bred out of season are more likely to have ewe lambs that will do the same.
    • This is done in two phases: challenge phase and clean-up phase.
  • 28. Ewe lamb selection
    • Challenge phase
      • October and November lambing
      • Keep replacement ewe lambs
  • 29. Ewe lamb selection
    • Challenge phase
      • October and November lambing
      • Keep replacement ewe lambs
    • Clean-up Phase
      • January lambing
      • No Replacements
  • 30. Natural Techniques
    • Ram Effect
      • Advantages:
        • Cost effective
      • Disadvantages:
        • Not always effective on all ewes
    • Ewe lamb Selection
      • Advantages:
        • Cost effective
      • Disadvantages:
        • Takes many breeding seasons to build up a flock
  • 31. What methods can be used to overcome seasonal reproduction in the ewe?
    • Getting ewe to produce hormones naturally
      • Ram Effect
      • Selection
    • Treating a ewe with hormones that are normally seen during her reproductive cycle
    NATURAL ARTIFICAL
  • 32. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  • 33. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  • 34. Progestins: How they work Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 17
    • Progesterone is produced by the Corpus Luteum (CL)
    • CL grows and shrinks producing more and less Progesterone
    • Decreasing levels of Progesterone stimulate ovulation
  • 35. Artificial Techniques
    • Progestins (active ingredient: P4 or synthetic P4)
      • Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR™) – Vaginal insert
      • Melengestrol Acetate (MGA™) – Oral (Feed additive)
  • 36. Progestins
    • CIDRS:
      • Inserted Vaginally
      • Contains 300mg of P 4
      • Cost of $7.50/ewe
      • Pregnancy Rate of 75% - 95%
    CIDR™
  • 37. Progestins: CIDR Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Days -12 -6 0 2 Insert CIDR on day -12 Remove CIDR on day 0 Heat in 1-2 days
  • 38. Progestins
    • MGA
      • Feed to ewe twice a day
      • Total of 0.3mg/ewe/day
      • Cost very inexpensive/ewe/day
      • Pregnancy Rate of 40% - 60%
  • 39. Progestins: MGA Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Days -12 -6 0 2 Start feeding MGA on day -12 Stop feeding MGA on day 0 Heat in 1-2 days
  • 40. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  • 41. Endocrine Control of Estrous Cycle in the Ewe
  • 42. Gonadotropins: How they work Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 17
    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the growth of follicles so eggs can be shed during ovulation.
    FSH
  • 43. Artificial Techniques
    • Gonadotropins:
      • Increase # lambs born/ewe by stimulating follicle development to release more eggs at ovulation
      • Increase synchronization of ovulation, which helps to shorten duration of the lambing season
  • 44. Gonadotropins
    • PG600
      • Mimics the actions of FSH
      • Administer one shot at time of removal of CIDRs or MGA
      • 5ml dose (400IU PMSG)
      • $5/dose
      • Pregnancy rate when used with CIDRs of 85% - 95% out of season
  • 45. Gonadotropin: PG600 (with CIDRs) Day of estrous cycle 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Days -12 -6 0 2 Insert CIDR on day -12 Remove CIDR on day 0 Heat in 1-2 days Administer shot of PG600 on day 0
  • 46. Artificial Techniques
    • Advantages
      • Effective at increasing pregnancy rates out of season
      • MGA is cost efficient
      • PG600 is efficient at increasing the # of lambs/ewe
      • Ability to synchronize lambing for better management of time
    • Disadvantages
      • More costs than natural methods
      • Time consuming –
        • feeding MGA twice daily
        • inserting CIDRs
        • injecting PG600
      • CIDRs have limited availability, FDA is working on approval
  • 47. Summary
    • Overcoming seasonality of the ewe:
      • can enhance profitability of the producer
      • but it does require time, strict management and some initial costs
  • 48. Questions?