Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Plato
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Plato

1,328

Published on

Published in: Education, Spiritual
0 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,328
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. (“Enjoy the Silence”, Depeche Mode)
  • 2. Please only use the “play” button toadvance the slide showor you’ll missanimated content & movies
  • 3. Glossary BCE : “Before Common Era (cf. BC) CE : “Common Era” (cf. AD) c. : circa (Latin) for “around [some date or year]” cf. : “compare” e.g. : exempli gratiā (Latin) for “for example” etc. : et cetera (Latin) for “and so forth” ≈ : “approximate” or “approximately”  : “Possible” or “possibility”  : “Necessary” or “necessity”
  • 4. Agenda Plato Background Early Platonic Dialogues & Elenchus Socrates vs. “Socrates” vs. Plato ἔλεγχος (elengkhos, Latinized as elenchus) ἀπορία (aporia) Euthyphro – Divine Command Theory Republic I – Ethical Egoism Cf. Middle & Late Platonic Dialogues & Dialectic Cf. Rep. VII (539a) ≈ first ⅓ Republic II – Social Contract Theory Remainder Republic II-IV; VII-IX – Virtue Ethics
  • 5. The safest general characterization of the Europeanphilosophical tradition is that it consists of a series offootnotes to Plato– Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality (1929) 39
  • 6. Aristocles“the son of Ariston andPerictione or Petone”.a.k.a. Plato• 428/7-348/7 BCE• Native Athenian; Solona claimed maternalancestor• At least two brothers –Adeimantus andGlaucon – who areSocrates’ maininterlocutors in theRepublic.• Most famous student ofSocrates
  • 7. Aristocles“the son of Ariston andPerictione or Petone”.a.k.a. Plato• Sister Petone’sson, Speusippus, inherits leadership of Plato’sAcademy• Over another, morefamous student ofPlato’s, Aristotle• His Academy lasteduntil Christian emperorJustinian closed it in529 CE – after almost950 years!
  • 8. Socrates•c. 469 –399 BCBCE•Notoriouslyunhandsome•Despite contrasting hisphilosophy with meresophistry, oftenassociated with them•No friend of democracy•Primarily interested inmatters ethical•Claimed a daemonguided his actionstoward the right & goodand away from thewrong & bad
  • 9. Socrates•Delphic Oracleproclaimed that “nonewas wiser” than he•Socrates claimed that thiswas only because “I knowthat I know nothing”•The above – and his beinga gadfly to the powerfulin general – lead to hisbeing put to death byAthens•Left no written work ofhis own (cf. Phaedrus 274ff. esp. 275d) •Known primarily through hisstudents, Xenophon & Plato, andAristophanes’ satire The Clouds
  • 10. … vs. “Socrates” Relationship between Plato & Socrates is … complex Especially between Plato and his literary characterizationof Socrates In the “early dialogues” “Socrates” is both a moral and philosophical hero –nay saint – who is rarely, if ever, wrong But equally rarely does “Socrates” offers anything likehis own account Instead he typically only gives negative critiques ofother’s substantive positions And, thus, “Socrates” is seen as the gadfly of Athens!
  • 11. Elenchus (ἔλεγχος) Philosophical methodology Starts by considering something’s essential nature “what is it?” In the Euthyphro, “it” is piety; in the Republic, justice Usually asked of experts Presume SOFA (some one form account) Proceeds by showing that the various answers fail Especially those of the purported experts) And usually fail in some interesting, illustrative way I.e., show what “it” is not Examples of what not to do, of how not to reason/argue
  • 12. Aporia (ἀπορία) Elentic inquiry ends in anuncomfortable, embarrassing philosophicalpuzzlement and silence Experts shown to be (at least) as ignorant as Socrates Nevertheless, some kind of progress – early dialoguesdo clear away the philosophical underbrush Audience now in a position to do real philosophy!
  • 13. Plato’s Middle “Socrates” Begins to move beyond elenchus and mere critique Gives positive, substantive philosophical views Often, via the character of “Socrates” Who’s usually still Plato’s mouthpiece But not always! Sometime interesting, substantive points arise fromother characters – sometime even at the expense ofSocrates!
  • 14. Middle Dialogues So, we must be more sensitive to what is going on How are the characters interacting? Is irony being employed here? Is Plato critiquing himself? His former (early)views? Or even his master’s (i.e. Socrates’) views? Bear in mind for Book I of his Republic! There, I argue that something very interestinghappens between Plato’s “Thrasymachus” and his“Socrates”
  • 15. Dialectical Method Plato’s Republic moves away from elenchus &towards dialectic And its presentation of positive arguments Republic I is elentic, ending in aporia But, here, aporia not an ending It is the “jumping off point” for the rest of theRepublic Cf. Rep. VII (539a) Explicitly skeptical of elenchus as intellectuallycorruptive to young, untrained mind
  • 16. Republic’s Dialectic The aporia of Republic I is transformed in ≈ the first⅓ Republic II into a version of the Social ContractTheory And put into a “dialectic” with the Virtue Ethics ofthe remainder of the Republic II-IV; VII-IX
  • 17. Plato’s Later Works Unfortunately, we will not study any of Plato’s lateworks here Character of Socrates continues to change over time Plato’s coming philosophically into his own. Socrates is now often a minor character Rhetorically no better or worse than any of the othercharacters (even if still revered and honored). No longer Plato’s mouthpiece
  • 18. Plato’s Later Works Re-evaluation of his own earlier works Sometimes “Socrates” represents Plato’s old view “Have we gone too far in the middle works?” The answer is less than clear Like many middle dialogues, tend to besustained, positive arguments that explore Φ topicsin-depth Less back-and-forth, less considering of differingarguments or positions, cf. Republic and Phaedo E.g. Timaeus: Socrates is mainly the titular character’saudience; the Laws, where Socrates is wholly absent!
  • 19. Plato, Euthyphro• Pay special attention to 9e-11eRecommended:• Rachels 4.1, 4.2, 4.4(“Enjoy the Silence”, Depeche Mode)

×