The Presidency

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Slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on the U.S. Presidency for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2008. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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The Presidency

  1. 1. The Presidency Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Setting precedents Early US presidents & their actions…
  3. 3. What explains the expansion of presidential power?
  4. 4. 4 Factors
  5. 5. Expansion of Presidential Power
  6. 6. Energy Expansion of Presidential Power
  7. 7. Vague Energy Constitutional Provisions Expansion of Presidential Power
  8. 8. Vague Energy Constitutional Provisions Expansion of Presidential Power Changing Public Expectations
  9. 9. Vague Energy Constitutional Provisions Expansion of Presidential Power Changing Congressional Public Delegation of Expectations Power, Authority
  10. 10. Roles and Powers of the President
  11. 11. Chief of State
  12. 12. The Power to Persuade
  13. 13. The “Bully Pulpit”
  14. 14. State of the Union Address
  15. 15. Success! FAIL The Importance of Approval Ratings
  16. 16. Commander-in-Chief
  17. 17. Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs
  18. 18. 1861 - U.S. Civil War - 1865 Action on Military Matters Congress President
  19. 19. 1861 - U.S. Civil War - 1865 Action on Military Matters Congress President
  20. 20. United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936)
  21. 21. Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951)
  22. 22. War Powers Resolution (1973)
  23. 23. Manager of the Economy
  24. 24. Employment Act of 1946
  25. 25. The Budgetary Process (c) 2008 L.A. Times
  26. 26. Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
  27. 27. Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
  28. 28. Chief Diplomat
  29. 29. Treaty Power Power to negotiate treaties, official agreements with other countries
  30. 30. The Need for Senate Ratification
  31. 31. Executive Agreement Legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature
  32. 32. Chief Executive
  33. 33. Appointment Power
  34. 34. Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court… and all other Officers of the United States.”
  35. 35. Advice & Consent
  36. 36. Inherent Executive Power
  37. 37. Executive Orders directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress
  38. 38. Executive Privilege right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests
  39. 39. Chief Legislator
  40. 40. Power to Recommend Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.”
  41. 41. I’m in ur Congress Ignorin’ ur President
  42. 42. The “Honeymoon Period” (and the importance of approval ratings)
  43. 43. Veto Power Most important FORMAL presidential power
  44. 44. FAIL
  45. 45. Vetoes are a NEGATIVE option, not a POSITIVE method
  46. 46. Reagan and the Pocket Veto
  47. 47. Signing Statements
  48. 48. “I find these signing statements are to Bush and Cheney's presidency what steroids were to Arnold Schwarzenegger’s bodybuilding. Like Schwarzenegger with his steroids, Bush does not deny using his signing statements; does not like talking about using them; and believes that they add muscle. But like steroids, signing statements ultimately lead to serious trouble.” John Dean, former Nixon White House Counsel
  49. 49. Signing Statements Statements appended to bills signed into law by the president which function as directives to executive branch departments and agencies as to how they are to implement the relevant law.
  50. 50. Source: CBS News
  51. 51. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)
  52. 52. In recent years, signing statements have been used to effectively nullify legislation as it relates to the Executive Branch, rather than veto it.
  53. 53. Source: New York Times
  54. 54. Signing Statements MONROE to CARTER
  55. 55. Signing Statements REAGAN to CLINTON
  56. 56. President Bush’s Signing Statements Number of Signing YEAR Statements 2001 24 2002 34 2003 27 2004 24 2005 14 2006 23 2007 8 TOTAL 154
  57. 57. How are President Bush’s signing statements different?
  58. 58. Generally, President Bush's signing statements tend to be brief and very broad, & seldom cite the authority on which the president is relying for his reading of the law.
  59. 59. Signing Statements EXAMPLES
  60. 60. Signing Statements PROBLEMS
  61. 61. Signing Statements
  62. 62. Signing Statements • Problems
  63. 63. Signing Statements • Problems – Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto
  64. 64. Signing Statements • Problems – Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto – Violation of the Presentment Clause
  65. 65. Signing Statements • Problems – Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto – Violation of the Presentment Clause – Conflict with the Justice Department?
  66. 66. The Vice-Presidency
  67. 67. What does the Vice-President DO, anyway?
  68. 68. “…the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” John Adams, the first Vice- President
  69. 69. “…not worth a pitcher of warm piss.” John Nance Garner, the 32nd Vice- President
  70. 70. “Once there were two brothers. One went away to sea; the other was elected Vice-President of the United States. And nothing was ever heard of either of them again.” Thomas R. Marshall, the 28th Vice- President
  71. 71. What does the Vice-President DO, anyway?
  72. 72. A Heartbeat Away...
  73. 73. Constitution: Should the President die or become disabled while in office, quot;powers and dutiesquot; of the office transferred to the Vice President.
  74. 74. 25th Amendment to the Rescue!
  75. 75. And the First Runner-Up is... (cc) 2005 Flickr user feastoffools
  76. 76. 12th Amendment (1804)
  77. 77. 25th Amendment (1967)
  78. 78. Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone (cc) 2007 Flickr user .Gladius
  79. 79. The Modern Vice-Presidency

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