The Presidency

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Slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on the American Presidency and Vice-Presidency for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Fall 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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The Presidency

  1. 1. The Presidency Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 3. The Dormant Presidency
  3. 4. Setting precedents Early US presidents & their actions…
  4. 12. Expansion of Presidential Power
  5. 13. 4 Factors
  6. 14. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy
  7. 15. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy Vague Constitutional Provisions
  8. 16. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy Changing Public Expectations Vague Constitutional Provisions
  9. 17. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy Changing Public Expectations Congressional Delegation of Power,Authority Vague Constitutional Provisions
  10. 18. Roles of the President
  11. 19. Chief of State
  12. 20. Commander-in-Chief
  13. 21. Chief Legislator
  14. 22. Manager of the Economy
  15. 24. Employment Act of 1946
  16. 25. Chief Diplomat
  17. 26. The President’s Limited Powers
  18. 27. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  19. 28. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  20. 29. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  21. 30. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  22. 31. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  23. 32. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  24. 33. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  25. 34. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  26. 35. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  27. 36. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  28. 38. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgetary process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional Budget Office (CBO) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 39. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgetary process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional Budget Office (CBO) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 40. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgetary process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional Budget Office (CBO) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 41. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court…and all other Officers of the United States.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the “Advice and Consent of the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over the Advise portion of the clause. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 42. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court…and all other Officers of the United States.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the “Advice and Consent of the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over the Advise portion of the clause. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 43. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court…and all other Officers of the United States.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the “Advice and Consent of the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over the Advise portion of the clause. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 44. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 45. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 46. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 47. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 48. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution’s vagueness on this issue leaves the issue of war powers unsettled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Civil War, presidents seldom acted on their own in military matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War and after… </li></ul></ul>
  39. 49. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution’s vagueness on this issue leaves the issue of war powers unsettled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Civil War, presidents seldom acted on their own in military matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War and after… </li></ul></ul>
  40. 50. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution’s vagueness on this issue leaves the issue of war powers unsettled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Civil War, presidents seldom acted on their own in military matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War and after… </li></ul></ul>
  41. 51. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting this power: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Powers Resolution (1973) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 52. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting this power: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Powers Resolution (1973) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 53. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting this power: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Powers Resolution (1973) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 54. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be vested in a President.” Does this mean anything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Orders: directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive privilege: right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 55. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be vested in a President.” Does this mean anything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Orders: directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive privilege: right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 56. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be vested in a President.” Does this mean anything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Orders: directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive privilege: right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 57. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 58. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 59. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 60. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  51. 61. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 62. Signing Statements
  53. 63. “ I find these signing statements are to Bush and Cheney's presidency what steroids were to Arnold Schwarzenegger’s bodybuilding. Like Schwarzenegger with his steroids, Bush does not deny using his signing statements; does not like talking about using them; and believes that they add muscle. But like steroids, signing statements ultimately lead to serious trouble. ” John Dean, former Nixon White House Counsel
  54. 64. Signing Statements Statements appended to bills signed into law by the president which function as directives to executive branch departments and agencies as to how they are to implement the relevant law.
  55. 65. Source: CBS News
  56. 66. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)
  57. 67. Signing Statements <ul><li>Signing Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to effectively nullify legislation as it relates to the Executive Branch, rather than veto it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel Alito and the 1986 Memo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained attention in 2006 when President Bush used this to nullify McCain amendment on torture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, Bush's signing statements tend to be brief and very broad, seldom cite the authority on which the president is relying for his reading of the law. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 68. In recent years, signing statements have been used to effectively nullify legislation as it relates to the Executive Branch, rather than veto it .
  59. 70. Source: New York Times
  60. 71. Signing Statements MONROE to CARTER
  61. 72. Signing Statements REAGAN to CLINTON
  62. 73. President Bush’s Signing Statements 147 TOTAL 1 2007 23 2006 14 2005 24 2004 27 2003 34 2002 24 2001 Number of Signing Statements YEAR
  63. 74. How are President Bush’s signing statements different?
  64. 75. Generally, President Bush's signing statements tend to be brief and very broad, & seldom cite the authority on which the president is relying for his reading of the law.
  65. 76. Signing Statements EXAMPLES
  66. 77. Signing Statements PROBLEMS
  67. 78. Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the Presentment Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with the Justice Department? </li></ul></ul>
  68. 79. Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the Presentment Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with the Justice Department? </li></ul></ul>
  69. 80. Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the Presentment Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with the Justice Department? </li></ul></ul>
  70. 81. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  71. 82. “… the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” John Adams, the first Vice-President
  72. 83. “… not worth a pitcher of warm piss.” John Nance Garner, the 32nd Vice-President
  73. 84. “ Once there were two brothers. One went away to sea; the other was elected Vice-President of the United States. And nothing was ever heard of either of them again.” Thomas R. Marshall, the 28th Vice-President
  74. 85. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  75. 86. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  76. 87. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  77. 88. <ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in office, &quot;powers and duties&quot; of the office transferred to the Vice President. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once again, vague language creates a problem… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment to the rescue! </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  78. 89. <ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in office, &quot;powers and duties&quot; of the office transferred to the Vice President. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once again, vague language creates a problem… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment to the rescue! </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  79. 90. <ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in office, &quot;powers and duties&quot; of the office transferred to the Vice President. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once again, vague language creates a problem… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment to the rescue! </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  80. 91. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  81. 92. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  82. 93. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  83. 94. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  84. 95. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  85. 96. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  86. 97. <ul><li>The Modern Vice-Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In recent years, presidents have made more use of their vice-presidents, in some cases even seeing it as training for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency

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