Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The Presidency Dr. Christopher S. Rice
I think that President Bush is:  <ul><li>A great president </li></ul><ul><li>A good president </li></ul><ul><li>A mediocre...
 
The Dormant Presidency
Setting precedents Early US presidents & their actions…
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The factors which explain the expansion of presidential powers include all of the following EXCEPT: <ul><li>times of crisi...
Expansion of Presidential Power
4   Factors
Expansion of  Presidential Power Energy
Expansion of  Presidential Power Energy Vague Constitutional Provisions
Expansion of  Presidential Power Energy Changing Public Expectations Vague Constitutional Provisions
Expansion of  Presidential Power Energy Changing Public Expectations Congressional Delegation of Power,Authority Vague Con...
In which role do you believe the president is able to be most effective?  <ul><li>Manager of the Economy </li></ul><ul><li...
Roles of the President
Chief of State
Commander-in-Chief
Chief Legislator
Manager of the Economy
 
Employment Act of 1946
Chief Diplomat
How much confidence do you have in the president to look out for your best interests?  <ul><li>A high level of confidence ...
The President’s  Limited  Powers
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential...
How successful will President Bush be in pushing his legislative agenda through the 110 th  Congress? <ul><li>Very Success...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to reco...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to reco...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to reco...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to reco...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to reco...
 
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgeta...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgeta...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgeta...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint ...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint ...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint ...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements...
A legal contract between two nations which does not require the approval of the Senate is called: <ul><li>an international...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority ove...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority ove...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority ove...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting thi...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting thi...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting thi...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be veste...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be veste...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be veste...
How confident are you in the president’s ability to make good foreign policy decisions?  <ul><li>Very confident </li></ul>...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></u...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></u...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></u...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></u...
The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></u...
Signing Statements
“ I find these signing statements are to Bush and Cheney's presidency what steroids were to Arnold Schwarzenegger’s bodybu...
Signing Statements Statements appended to bills signed into law by the president which function as directives to executive...
Source: CBS News
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld  (2006)
Signing Statements <ul><li>Signing Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to effectively nullify legislation as it relates ...
In recent years, signing statements have been used to effectively  nullify legislation  as it relates to the Executive Bra...
 
Source: New York Times
Signing Statements MONROE to CARTER
Signing Statements REAGAN to CLINTON
President Bush’s Signing Statements 147 TOTAL 1 2007 23 2006 14 2005 24 2004 27 2003 34 2002 24 2001 Number of Signing Sta...
How are President Bush’s signing statements different?
Generally, President Bush's signing statements tend to be brief and very broad, & seldom cite the authority on which the p...
Signing Statements EXAMPLES
Signing Statements PROBLEMS
Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item ...
Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item ...
Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item ...
I would support a constitutional amendment that would give the president unlimited terms of office.  <ul><li>Yes </li></ul...
Presidential Personality & Style <ul><li>The Presidential Character  (1972) – James David Barber </li></ul><ul><li>Style  ...
Presidential Personality & Style <ul><li>The Presidential Character  (1972) – James David Barber </li></ul><ul><li>Style  ...
Presidential Personality & Style <ul><li>The Presidential Character  (1972) – James David Barber </li></ul><ul><li>Style  ...
<ul><li>Character   – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduring...
<ul><li>Character   – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduring...
<ul><li>Character   – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduring...
ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
According to Barber's psychological approach to understanding presidential behavior, Presidents: <ul><li>can be understood...
ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
<ul><li>Active-positive  – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. ...
<ul><li>Active-positive  – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. ...
<ul><li>Active-positive  – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. ...
<ul><li>Active-positive  – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. ...
<ul><li>Active-positive  – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. ...
<ul><li>Active-positive  – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. ...
 
ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
<ul><li>Active-negative   – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative e...
<ul><li>Active-negative   – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative e...
<ul><li>Active-negative   – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative e...
<ul><li>Active-negative   – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative e...
<ul><li>Active-negative   – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative e...
<ul><li>Active-negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This personality type is said to be dangerous because it is too rigid, chara...
 
ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
<ul><li>Passive-Positive  – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a rewar...
<ul><li>Passive-Positive   – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a rewa...
<ul><li>Passive-Positive   – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a rewa...
<ul><li>Passive-Positive  – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a rewar...
 
ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
<ul><li>Passive-negative   – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of...
<ul><li>Passive-negative   – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of...
<ul><li>Passive-negative   – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of...
<ul><li>Passive-negative   – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of...
<ul><li>Passive-negative   – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of...
<ul><li>Passive-negative   – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of...
 
<ul><li>Criticisms of Barber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonho...
<ul><li>Criticisms of Barber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonho...
<ul><li>Criticisms of Barber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonho...
Which of the following is an example of an Active Negative president? <ul><li>Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>George W. Bu...
Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><...
“… the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” John Adams, the f...
“… not worth a pitcher of warm piss.” John Nance Garner, the 32nd Vice-President
“ Once there were two brothers. One went away to sea; the other was elected Vice-President of the United States. And nothi...
Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><...
Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><...
Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><...
<ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in offi...
<ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in offi...
<ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in offi...
<ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul...
<ul><li>The Modern Vice-Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In recent years, presidents have made more use of their vice-pres...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

The Presidency

1,139

Published on

PowerPoint for Presidency lectures for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,139
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "The Presidency"

  1. 1. The Presidency Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. I think that President Bush is: <ul><li>A great president </li></ul><ul><li>A good president </li></ul><ul><li>A mediocre president </li></ul><ul><li>A poor president </li></ul><ul><li>The worst we have ever had </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Dormant Presidency
  4. 5. Setting precedents Early US presidents & their actions…
  5. 13. The factors which explain the expansion of presidential powers include all of the following EXCEPT: <ul><li>times of crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>the energy of individual presidents. </li></ul><ul><li>congressional delegation of power. </li></ul><ul><li>changing expectations of the office. </li></ul>
  6. 14. Expansion of Presidential Power
  7. 15. 4 Factors
  8. 16. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy
  9. 17. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy Vague Constitutional Provisions
  10. 18. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy Changing Public Expectations Vague Constitutional Provisions
  11. 19. Expansion of Presidential Power Energy Changing Public Expectations Congressional Delegation of Power,Authority Vague Constitutional Provisions
  12. 20. In which role do you believe the president is able to be most effective? <ul><li>Manager of the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of State </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Diplomat </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Legislator </li></ul>
  13. 21. Roles of the President
  14. 22. Chief of State
  15. 23. Commander-in-Chief
  16. 24. Chief Legislator
  17. 25. Manager of the Economy
  18. 27. Employment Act of 1946
  19. 28. Chief Diplomat
  20. 29. How much confidence do you have in the president to look out for your best interests? <ul><li>A high level of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>A moderate level of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>A low level of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>
  21. 30. The President’s Limited Powers
  22. 31. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  23. 32. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  24. 33. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  25. 34. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  26. 35. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>The Power to Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most important presidential power, found nowhere in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used much more openly today than early years of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bully Pulpit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Approval Ratings </li></ul></ul>
  27. 36. How successful will President Bush be in pushing his legislative agenda through the 110 th Congress? <ul><li>Very Successful </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat Successful </li></ul><ul><li>Not very successful </li></ul><ul><li>Sen. Reid to Speaker Pelosi: “President Bush? Is he still here?” </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know/Don’t give a flyin’ flip. </li></ul>
  28. 37. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  29. 38. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  30. 39. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  31. 40. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  32. 41. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives president ability to initiate debate, set the political agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is checked by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of approval ratings… </li></ul></ul>
  33. 43. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgetary process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional Budget Office (CBO) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 44. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgetary process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional Budget Office (CBO) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 45. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Budgetary Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning there was…a confused budgetary process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional Budget Office (CBO) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 46. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court…and all other Officers of the United States.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the “Advice and Consent of the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over the Advise portion of the clause. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 47. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court…and all other Officers of the United States.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the “Advice and Consent of the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over the Advise portion of the clause. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 48. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court…and all other Officers of the United States.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the “Advice and Consent of the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over the Advise portion of the clause. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 49. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 50. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 51. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 52. A legal contract between two nations which does not require the approval of the Senate is called: <ul><li>an international agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>an executive agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>an international contract. </li></ul><ul><li>a binding resolution. </li></ul>
  43. 53. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Treaty Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to negotiate treaties: official agreements with other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take effect without approval of 2/3 of Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits president’s flexibility, potential damage to credibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 54. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution’s vagueness on this issue leaves the issue of war powers unsettled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Civil War, presidents seldom acted on their own in military matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War and after… </li></ul></ul>
  45. 55. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution’s vagueness on this issue leaves the issue of war powers unsettled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Civil War, presidents seldom acted on their own in military matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War and after… </li></ul></ul>
  46. 56. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution’s vagueness on this issue leaves the issue of war powers unsettled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Civil War, presidents seldom acted on their own in military matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War and after… </li></ul></ul>
  47. 57. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting this power: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Powers Resolution (1973) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 58. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting this power: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Powers Resolution (1973) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 59. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Power of Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court cases affecting this power: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Powers Resolution (1973) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 60. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be vested in a President.” Does this mean anything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Orders: directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive privilege: right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 61. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be vested in a President.” Does this mean anything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Orders: directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive privilege: right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 62. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Inherent Executive Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The executive power shall be vested in a President.” Does this mean anything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Orders: directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive privilege: right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 63. How confident are you in the president’s ability to make good foreign policy decisions? <ul><li>Very confident </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat confident </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat not confident </li></ul><ul><li>Not at all confident </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>
  54. 64. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  55. 65. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  56. 66. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  57. 67. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  58. 68. The President’s Limited Powers <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important FORMAL presidential power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress usually fails to override it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main check on use is its negative nature –can only stop policy change, not initiate it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan and the Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush and the Veto (or lack thereof…) </li></ul></ul>
  59. 69. Signing Statements
  60. 70. “ I find these signing statements are to Bush and Cheney's presidency what steroids were to Arnold Schwarzenegger’s bodybuilding. Like Schwarzenegger with his steroids, Bush does not deny using his signing statements; does not like talking about using them; and believes that they add muscle. But like steroids, signing statements ultimately lead to serious trouble. ” John Dean, former Nixon White House Counsel
  61. 71. Signing Statements Statements appended to bills signed into law by the president which function as directives to executive branch departments and agencies as to how they are to implement the relevant law.
  62. 72. Source: CBS News
  63. 73. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)
  64. 74. Signing Statements <ul><li>Signing Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to effectively nullify legislation as it relates to the Executive Branch, rather than veto it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel Alito and the 1986 Memo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained attention in 2006 when President Bush used this to nullify McCain amendment on torture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, Bush's signing statements tend to be brief and very broad, seldom cite the authority on which the president is relying for his reading of the law. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 75. In recent years, signing statements have been used to effectively nullify legislation as it relates to the Executive Branch, rather than veto it .
  66. 77. Source: New York Times
  67. 78. Signing Statements MONROE to CARTER
  68. 79. Signing Statements REAGAN to CLINTON
  69. 80. President Bush’s Signing Statements 147 TOTAL 1 2007 23 2006 14 2005 24 2004 27 2003 34 2002 24 2001 Number of Signing Statements YEAR
  70. 81. How are President Bush’s signing statements different?
  71. 82. Generally, President Bush's signing statements tend to be brief and very broad, & seldom cite the authority on which the president is relying for his reading of the law.
  72. 83. Signing Statements EXAMPLES
  73. 84. Signing Statements PROBLEMS
  74. 85. Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the Presentment Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with the Justice Department? </li></ul></ul>
  75. 86. Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the Presentment Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with the Justice Department? </li></ul></ul>
  76. 87. Signing Statements <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the Presentment Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with the Justice Department? </li></ul></ul>
  77. 88. I would support a constitutional amendment that would give the president unlimited terms of office. <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat </li></ul>
  78. 89. Presidential Personality & Style <ul><li>The Presidential Character (1972) – James David Barber </li></ul><ul><li>Style – president’s habitual way of performing his three political roles: rhetoric, personal relations and homework. </li></ul><ul><li>World View – consists primarily of a president’s primary, politically relevant beliefs, particularly his conceptions of social causality, human nature and the central moral conflicts of the time. </li></ul>
  79. 90. Presidential Personality & Style <ul><li>The Presidential Character (1972) – James David Barber </li></ul><ul><li>Style – president’s habitual way of performing his three political roles: rhetoric, personal relations and homework. </li></ul><ul><li>World View – consists primarily of a president’s primary, politically relevant beliefs, particularly his conceptions of social causality, human nature and the central moral conflicts of the time. </li></ul>
  80. 91. Presidential Personality & Style <ul><li>The Presidential Character (1972) – James David Barber </li></ul><ul><li>Style – president’s habitual way of performing his three political roles: rhetoric, personal relations and homework. </li></ul><ul><li>World View – consists primarily of a president’s primary, politically relevant beliefs, particularly his conceptions of social causality, human nature and the central moral conflicts of the time. </li></ul>
  81. 92. <ul><li>Character – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduringly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-Passivity – how much energy does the man (or woman!) invest in his presidency? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive-Negative Affect – how does the president feel about what he does? </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  82. 93. <ul><li>Character – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduringly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-Passivity – how much energy does the man (or woman!) invest in his presidency? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive-Negative Affect – how does the president feel about what he does? </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  83. 94. <ul><li>Character – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduringly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-Passivity – how much energy does the man (or woman!) invest in his presidency? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive-Negative Affect – how does the president feel about what he does? </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  84. 95. ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
  85. 96. According to Barber's psychological approach to understanding presidential behavior, Presidents: <ul><li>can be understood by examining their background and personality. </li></ul><ul><li>are categorized based on the amount of energy they bring to political work. </li></ul><ul><li>are categorized based on their satisfaction derived from or motivation for serving in public office. </li></ul><ul><li>all of the above. </li></ul>
  86. 97. ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
  87. 98. <ul><li>Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction of capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment without immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive sense of the possibilities of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repertoire of Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communication of Excitement </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  88. 99. <ul><li>Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction of capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment without immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive sense of the possibilities of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repertoire of Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communication of Excitement </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  89. 100. <ul><li>Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction of capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment without immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive sense of the possibilities of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repertoire of Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communication of Excitement </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  90. 101. <ul><li>Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction of capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment without immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive sense of the possibilities of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repertoire of Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communication of Excitement </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  91. 102. <ul><li>Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction of capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment without immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive sense of the possibilities of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repertoire of Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communication of Excitement </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  92. 103. <ul><li>Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction of capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment without immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive sense of the possibilities of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repertoire of Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communication of Excitement </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  93. 105. ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
  94. 106. <ul><li>Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of self-gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views the world as dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent and emphatic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon positive response from his environment </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  95. 107. <ul><li>Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of self-gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views the world as dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent and emphatic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon positive response from his environment </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  96. 108. <ul><li>Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of self-gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views the world as dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent and emphatic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon positive response from his environment </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  97. 109. <ul><li>Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of self-gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views the world as dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent and emphatic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon positive response from his environment </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  98. 110. <ul><li>Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of self-gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views the world as dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent and emphatic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon positive response from his environment </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  99. 111. <ul><li>Active-negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This personality type is said to be dangerous because it is too rigid, characterized by inflexible behavior – often with disastrous results! </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  100. 113. ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
  101. 114. <ul><li>Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive-positives are political lovers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tend not to accomplish much. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  102. 115. <ul><li>Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive-positives are political lovers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tend not to accomplish much. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  103. 116. <ul><li>Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive-positives are political lovers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tend not to accomplish much. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  104. 117. <ul><li>Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive-positives are political lovers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tend not to accomplish much. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  105. 119. ACTIVE PASSIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Passive-Negative Passive-Positive Active-Negative Active-Positive
  106. 120. <ul><li>Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of usefulness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: DRIFT </li></ul><ul><li>A dying breed in US politics. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  107. 121. <ul><li>Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of usefulness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: DRIFT </li></ul><ul><li>A dying breed in US politics. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  108. 122. <ul><li>Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of usefulness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: DRIFT </li></ul><ul><li>A dying breed in US politics. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  109. 123. <ul><li>Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of usefulness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: DRIFT </li></ul><ul><li>A dying breed in US politics. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  110. 124. <ul><li>Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of usefulness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: DRIFT </li></ul><ul><li>A dying breed in US politics. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  111. 125. <ul><li>Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of usefulness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: DRIFT </li></ul><ul><li>A dying breed in US politics. </li></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  112. 127. <ul><li>Criticisms of Barber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonhole” individual presidents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology may be more important than character in analyzing how presidents approach their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential behavior may be affected less by character than by events and circumstances surrounding their presidency </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  113. 128. <ul><li>Criticisms of Barber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonhole” individual presidents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology may be more important than character in analyzing how presidents approach their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential behavior may be affected less by character than by events and circumstances surrounding their presidency </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  114. 129. <ul><li>Criticisms of Barber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonhole” individual presidents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology may be more important than character in analyzing how presidents approach their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential behavior may be affected less by character than by events and circumstances surrounding their presidency </li></ul></ul>Presidential Personality & Style
  115. 130. Which of the following is an example of an Active Negative president? <ul><li>Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>George W. Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Lyndon Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>All of the Above </li></ul>
  116. 131. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  117. 132. “… the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” John Adams, the first Vice-President
  118. 133. “… not worth a pitcher of warm piss.” John Nance Garner, the 32nd Vice-President
  119. 134. “ Once there were two brothers. One went away to sea; the other was elected Vice-President of the United States. And nothing was ever heard of either of them again.” Thomas R. Marshall, the 28th Vice-President
  120. 135. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  121. 136. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  122. 137. Vice-Presidency <ul><li>What does the Vice-President do, anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything else is strictly at the discretion of the president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, most vice-presidents have been kept out of the policymaking loop. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  123. 138. <ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in office, &quot;powers and duties&quot; of the office transferred to the Vice President. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once again, vague language creates a problem… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment to the rescue! </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  124. 139. <ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in office, &quot;powers and duties&quot; of the office transferred to the Vice President. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once again, vague language creates a problem… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment to the rescue! </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  125. 140. <ul><li>The Succession Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution: should the President die or become disabled while in office, &quot;powers and duties&quot; of the office transferred to the Vice President. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once again, vague language creates a problem… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment to the rescue! </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  126. 141. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  127. 142. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  128. 143. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  129. 144. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  130. 145. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  131. 146. <ul><li>Becoming Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally, VP was runner-up in the presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment (1804) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th Amendment (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-Presidency best available stepping stone for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down the numbers… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency
  132. 147. <ul><li>The Modern Vice-Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In recent years, presidents have made more use of their vice-presidents, in some cases even seeing it as training for becoming president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples… </li></ul></ul>Vice-Presidency

×