The Constitution
A Topher Rice Digital File
The lesson here?
Political motives are
never neutral…
…and the truth is like
an onion skin.
The Goldilocks
Problem• Articles too weak –
needed stronger
national government
for nation-building.
• Needed to avoid
str...
The Goldilocks
Problem• Articles too weak –
needed stronger
national government
for nation-building.
• Needed to avoid
str...
The Goldilocks
Problem• Articles too weak –
needed stronger
national government
for nation-building.
• Needed to avoid
str...
The Articles (1777) created
in law what had already
existed in practice since
Declaration of
Independence…
The Articles (1777) created
in law what had already
existed in practice since
Declaration of
Independence…
…a loose confed...
Provisions of the Articles
1. Could make war/peace, but no power to
levy taxes to pursue either.
2. Could not regulate int...
Provisions of the Articles
1. Could make war/peace, but no power to
levy taxes to pursue either.
2. Could not regulate int...
Provisions of the Articles
1. Could make war/peace, but no power to
levy taxes to pursue either.
2. Could not regulate int...
Provisions of the Articles
1. Could make war/peace, but no power to
levy taxes to pursue either.
2. Could not regulate int...
Provisions of the Articles
1. Could make war/peace, but no power to
levy taxes to pursue either.
2. Could not regulate int...
Provisions of the Articles
1. Could make war/peace, but no power to
levy taxes to pursue either.
2. Could not regulate int...
Problems with the
Articles
Problems with the
Articles
• Government unable to finance its
activities.
• Colonial money almost worthless,
government co...
Problems with the
Articles
• Government unable to finance its
activities.
• Colonial money almost worthless,
government co...
Problems with the
Articles
• Government unable to finance its
activities.
• Colonial money almost worthless,
government co...
Problems with the
Articles
• Government unable to finance its
activities.
• Colonial money almost worthless,
government co...
Problems with the
Articles
• Government unable to finance its
activities.
• Colonial money almost worthless,
government co...
Shays’ Rebellion
One of the first US populist uprisings
Problem of Farmer
Debt
Fear of Democracy
Getting Out of Hand…
Shays’ Rebellion
One of the first US populist uprisings
The first constitution of the United
States was known as ________.
1. the Articles of
Confederation
2. the Virginia Plan
3...
Which of the following was NOT a
component of the Articles of
Confederation?
1. The absence of an
independent
judiciary.
2...
What is the proper
role of the majority?
Checks on the
Majority
• Selection of Senators
• Bicameral Congress
• Independent (non-elected)
• Judiciary
• Electoral Co...
Checks on the
Majority
• Selection of Senators
• Bicameral Congress
• Independent (non-elected)
• Judiciary
• Electoral Co...
Checks on the
Majority
• Selection of Senators
• Bicameral Congress
• Independent (non-elected)
Judiciary
• Electoral Coll...
Checks on the
Majority
• Selection of Senators
• Bicameral Congress
• Independent (non-elected)
Judiciary
• Electoral Coll...
Fragmented
Government
#1: Separation of
Powers
Central Government /
Authority
Executive
Legislative
Judicial
Legislative
Executive Judicial
#2: Checks & Balances
#3: Federalism
Madison argued that the best way to
control self-interest in government
was to have:
1. a democratic form
of government.
2...
Objectives of a
Republican
Form of Government
Government based on
popular consent
Government possesses
limited power
The Constitutional
Convention
May 25 - September 17, 1787
The Aerogel
Revolution?
Structural
Compromises
The Virginia Plan
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House popularly
elected, apportioned by
population.
– Upper House electe...
The Virginia Plan
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House popularly
elected, apportioned by
population.
– Upper House electe...
The Virginia Plan
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House popularly
elected, apportioned by
population.
– Upper House electe...
The Virginia Plan
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House popularly
elected, apportioned by
population.
– Upper House electe...
The Virginia Plan
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House popularly
elected, apportioned by
population.
– Upper House electe...
New Jersey Plan
• Cautious revision of Articles, not
a wholly new approach.
• Small-state delegates figured
out they were ...
New Jersey Plan
• Cautious revision of Articles, not
a wholly new approach.
• Small-state delegates figured
out they were ...
“You see the consequences of
pushing things too far. Some
members from the small states
wish for two branches in the
Gener...
New Jersey Plan
• Cautious revision of Articles, not
a wholly new approach.
• Small-state delegates figured
out they were ...
Recognition of hard
political reality, NOT
an acquiescence to
“states’ rights”
New Jersey Plan
• Favored strong national
government in principle,
opposed domination of large
states
• Unicameral legisla...
New Jersey Plan
• Favored strong national
government in principle,
opposed domination of large
states
• Unicameral legisla...
New Jersey Plan
• Favored strong national
government in principle,
opposed domination of large
states
• Unicameral legisla...
Hamilton’s Wacked-Out
Monarch-for-Life Plan
“No
thanks!
Hamilton’s Wacked-Out
Monarch-for-Life Plan
• Paterson lost, but did
achieve his purpose…
• Connecticut delegation
actually came up with
the compromise early,
but wer...
• Paterson lost, but did
achieve his purpose…
• Connecticut delegation
actually came up with
the compromise early,
but wer...
• Article I, Sections 2 & 3
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House apportioned by
population, popularly elected.
– Upper Ho...
• Article I, Sections 2 & 3
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House apportioned by
population, popularly elected.
– Upper Ho...
• Article I, Sections 2 & 3
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House apportioned by
population, popularly elected.
– Upper Ho...
• Article I, Sections 2 & 3
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House apportioned by
population, popularly elected.
– Upper Ho...
• Article I, Sections 2 & 3
• Bicameral Legislature
– Lower House apportioned by
population, popularly elected.
– Upper Ho...
In order to uphold the basic values of
democracy, the Constitution was designed
to include which of the following?
1. mixe...
Other
Compromises
The Three-Fifths
Compromise
Presidential Elections
The formal constitutional amendment
process provides for all of the following
EXCEPT:
1. Congress may develop
proposals fo...
Something to Ponder…
Something to Ponder…
…Government is slow and
“inefficient” because it
was designed to work that
way!
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
The Constitution
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The Constitution

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PowerPoint for Constitution lecture series for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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Transcript of "The Constitution"

  1. 1. The Constitution A Topher Rice Digital File
  2. 2. The lesson here?
  3. 3. Political motives are never neutral…
  4. 4. …and the truth is like an onion skin.
  5. 5. The Goldilocks Problem• Articles too weak – needed stronger national government for nation-building. • Needed to avoid strengthening central government too much to avoid tyrannical government.
  6. 6. The Goldilocks Problem• Articles too weak – needed stronger national government for nation-building. • Needed to avoid strengthening central government too much to avoid tyrannical government.
  7. 7. The Goldilocks Problem• Articles too weak – needed stronger national government for nation-building. • Needed to avoid strengthening central government too much to avoid tyrannical government.
  8. 8. The Articles (1777) created in law what had already existed in practice since Declaration of Independence…
  9. 9. The Articles (1777) created in law what had already existed in practice since Declaration of Independence… …a loose confederation of independent states.
  10. 10. Provisions of the Articles 1. Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either. 2. Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties. 3. No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced. 4. No national court system to settle interstate disputes. 5. All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible. 6. Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  11. 11. Provisions of the Articles 1. Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either. 2. Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties. 3. No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced. 4. No national court system to settle interstate disputes. 5. All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible. 6. Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  12. 12. Provisions of the Articles 1. Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either. 2. Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties. 3. No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced. 4. No national court system to settle interstate disputes. 5. All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible. 6. Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  13. 13. Provisions of the Articles 1. Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either. 2. Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties. 3. No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced. 4. No national court system to settle interstate disputes. 5. All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible. 6. Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  14. 14. Provisions of the Articles 1. Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either. 2. Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties. 3. No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced. 4. No national court system to settle interstate disputes. 5. All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible. 6. Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  15. 15. Provisions of the Articles 1. Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either. 2. Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties. 3. No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced. 4. No national court system to settle interstate disputes. 5. All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible. 6. Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  16. 16. Problems with the Articles
  17. 17. Problems with the Articles • Government unable to finance its activities. • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow. • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army. • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States. • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  18. 18. Problems with the Articles • Government unable to finance its activities. • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow. • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army. • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States. • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  19. 19. Problems with the Articles • Government unable to finance its activities. • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow. • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army. • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States. • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  20. 20. Problems with the Articles • Government unable to finance its activities. • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow. • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army. • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States. • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  21. 21. Problems with the Articles • Government unable to finance its activities. • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow. • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army. • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States. • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  22. 22. Shays’ Rebellion One of the first US populist uprisings
  23. 23. Problem of Farmer Debt
  24. 24. Fear of Democracy Getting Out of Hand…
  25. 25. Shays’ Rebellion One of the first US populist uprisings
  26. 26. The first constitution of the United States was known as ________. 1. the Articles of Confederation 2. the Virginia Plan 3. the Connecticut Compromise 4. the original inter- state agreement
  27. 27. Which of the following was NOT a component of the Articles of Confederation? 1. The absence of an independent judiciary. 2. The national government lacked the power to tax. 3. A unicameral legislature. 4. All of these choices ARE components of the Articles of Confederation.
  28. 28. What is the proper role of the majority?
  29. 29. Checks on the Majority • Selection of Senators • Bicameral Congress • Independent (non-elected) • Judiciary • Electoral College
  30. 30. Checks on the Majority • Selection of Senators • Bicameral Congress • Independent (non-elected) • Judiciary • Electoral College
  31. 31. Checks on the Majority • Selection of Senators • Bicameral Congress • Independent (non-elected) Judiciary • Electoral College
  32. 32. Checks on the Majority • Selection of Senators • Bicameral Congress • Independent (non-elected) Judiciary • Electoral College
  33. 33. Fragmented Government
  34. 34. #1: Separation of Powers
  35. 35. Central Government / Authority Executive Legislative Judicial
  36. 36. Legislative Executive Judicial
  37. 37. #2: Checks & Balances
  38. 38. #3: Federalism
  39. 39. Madison argued that the best way to control self-interest in government was to have: 1. a democratic form of government. 2. a republican form of government. 3. an educated public. 4. strong religious organizations.
  40. 40. Objectives of a Republican Form of Government
  41. 41. Government based on popular consent Government possesses limited power
  42. 42. The Constitutional Convention May 25 - September 17, 1787
  43. 43. The Aerogel Revolution?
  44. 44. Structural Compromises
  45. 45. The Virginia Plan • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population. – Upper House elected by Lower House. • Single Executive • Federal Judiciary • Supremacy Clause
  46. 46. The Virginia Plan • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population. – Upper House elected by Lower House. • Single Executive • Federal Judiciary • Supremacy Clause
  47. 47. The Virginia Plan • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population. – Upper House elected by Lower House. • Single Executive • Federal Judiciary • Supremacy Clause
  48. 48. The Virginia Plan • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population. – Upper House elected by Lower House. • Single Executive • Federal Judiciary • Supremacy Clause
  49. 49. The Virginia Plan • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population. – Upper House elected by Lower House. • Single Executive • Federal Judiciary • Supremacy Clause
  50. 50. New Jersey Plan • Cautious revision of Articles, not a wholly new approach. • Small-state delegates figured out they were getting pwnd. • Madison could have run roughshod over small-state delegates, but didn’t.
  51. 51. New Jersey Plan • Cautious revision of Articles, not a wholly new approach. • Small-state delegates figured out they were getting pwnd. • Madison could have run roughshod over small-state delegates, but didn’t.
  52. 52. “You see the consequences of pushing things too far. Some members from the small states wish for two branches in the General Legislature and are friends to a good National Government; but we would sooner submit to a foreign power than… be deprived of an equality of suffrage in both branches of the legislature, and thereby be thrown under the domination of the large States.”
  53. 53. New Jersey Plan • Cautious revision of Articles, not a wholly new approach. • Small-state delegates figured out they were getting pwnd. • Madison could have run roughshod over small-state delegates, but didn’t.
  54. 54. Recognition of hard political reality, NOT an acquiescence to “states’ rights”
  55. 55. New Jersey Plan • Favored strong national government in principle, opposed domination of large states • Unicameral legislature (one vote each state) • Supremacy Clause
  56. 56. New Jersey Plan • Favored strong national government in principle, opposed domination of large states • Unicameral legislature (one vote each state) • Supremacy Clause
  57. 57. New Jersey Plan • Favored strong national government in principle, opposed domination of large states • Unicameral legislature (one vote each state) • Supremacy Clause
  58. 58. Hamilton’s Wacked-Out Monarch-for-Life Plan
  59. 59. “No thanks!
  60. 60. Hamilton’s Wacked-Out Monarch-for-Life Plan
  61. 61. • Paterson lost, but did achieve his purpose… • Connecticut delegation actually came up with the compromise early, but were ignored The Connecticut Compromise
  62. 62. • Paterson lost, but did achieve his purpose… • Connecticut delegation actually came up with the compromise early, but were ignored The Connecticut Compromise
  63. 63. • Article I, Sections 2 & 3 • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected. – Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures. • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2) The Connecticut Compromise
  64. 64. • Article I, Sections 2 & 3 • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected. – Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures. • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2) The Connecticut Compromise
  65. 65. • Article I, Sections 2 & 3 • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected. – Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures. • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2) The Connecticut Compromise
  66. 66. • Article I, Sections 2 & 3 • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected. – Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures. • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2) The Connecticut Compromise
  67. 67. • Article I, Sections 2 & 3 • Bicameral Legislature – Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected. – Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures. • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2) The Connecticut Compromise
  68. 68. In order to uphold the basic values of democracy, the Constitution was designed to include which of the following? 1. mixed government 2. fragmentation of power 3. representative government 4. all of the above
  69. 69. Other Compromises
  70. 70. The Three-Fifths Compromise
  71. 71. Presidential Elections
  72. 72. The formal constitutional amendment process provides for all of the following EXCEPT: 1. Congress may develop proposals for amendments. 2. a national Constitutional Convention to develop proposals. 3. the President may develop a proposal for an amendment. 4. state Constitutional Conventions to ratify amendments.
  73. 73. Something to Ponder…
  74. 74. Something to Ponder… …Government is slow and “inefficient” because it was designed to work that way!

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