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The Constitution

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PowerPoint for Constitution lecture series for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

PowerPoint for Constitution lecture series for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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  • 1. The Constitution A Topher Rice Digital File
  • 2.  
  • 3. The lesson here?
  • 4. Political motives are never neutral…
  • 5. … and the truth is like an onion skin.
  • 6.  
  • 7. The Goldilocks Problem
    • Articles too weak – needed stronger national government for nation-building.
    • Needed to avoid strengthening central government too much to avoid tyrannical government.
  • 8. The Goldilocks Problem
    • Articles too weak – needed stronger national government for nation-building.
    • Needed to avoid strengthening central government too much to avoid tyrannical government.
  • 9. The Goldilocks Problem
    • Articles too weak – needed stronger national government for nation-building.
    • Needed to avoid strengthening central government too much to avoid tyrannical government.
  • 10.  
  • 11. The Articles (1777) created in law what had already existed in practice since Declaration of Independence…
  • 12. The Articles (1777) created in law what had already existed in practice since Declaration of Independence… … a loose confederation of independent states.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Provisions of the Articles
    • Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either.
    • Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties.
    • No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced.
    • No national court system to settle interstate disputes.
    • All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible.
    • Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  • 15. Provisions of the Articles
    • Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either.
    • Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties.
    • No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced.
    • No national court system to settle interstate disputes.
    • All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible.
    • Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  • 16. Provisions of the Articles
    • Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either.
    • Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties.
    • No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced.
    • No national court system to settle interstate disputes.
    • All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible.
    • Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  • 17. Provisions of the Articles
    • Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either.
    • Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties.
    • No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced.
    • No national court system to settle interstate disputes.
    • All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible.
    • Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  • 18. Provisions of the Articles
    • Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either.
    • Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties.
    • No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced.
    • No national court system to settle interstate disputes.
    • All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible.
    • Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  • 19. Provisions of the Articles
    • Could make war/peace, but no power to levy taxes to pursue either.
    • Could not regulate interstate commerce, nor deny states the right to collect customs duties.
    • No independent executive to insure laws passed by Congress enforced.
    • No national court system to settle interstate disputes.
    • All legislation required approval of 9 of 13 states, making action almost impossible.
    • Defects in the Articles were difficult to remedy – amendments required unanimous approval of the states.
  • 20. Problems with the Articles
  • 21. Problems with the Articles
    • Government unable to finance its activities.
    • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow.
    • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army.
    • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States.
    • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  • 22. Problems with the Articles
    • Government unable to finance its activities.
    • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow.
    • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army.
    • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States.
    • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  • 23. Problems with the Articles
    • Government unable to finance its activities.
    • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow.
    • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army.
    • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States.
    • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  • 24. Problems with the Articles
    • Government unable to finance its activities.
    • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow.
    • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army.
    • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States.
    • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  • 25. Problems with the Articles
    • Government unable to finance its activities.
    • Colonial money almost worthless, government couldn’t borrow.
    • Couldn’t defend US interests abroad because no standing army.
    • Difficult to make treaties: lack of single executive, Congressional actions could be vetoed by States.
    • Government couldn’t prevent outbreak of interstate commercial warfare.
  • 26. Shays’ Rebellion One of the first US populist uprisings
  • 27. Problem of Farmer Debt
  • 28.  
  • 29. Fear of Democracy Getting Out of Hand…
  • 30. Shays’ Rebellion One of the first US populist uprisings
  • 31. The first constitution of the United States was known as ________.
    • the Articles of Confederation
    • the Virginia Plan
    • the Connecticut Compromise
    • the original inter-state agreement
  • 32. Which of the following was NOT a component of the Articles of Confederation?
    • The absence of an independent judiciary.
    • The national government lacked the power to tax.
    • A unicameral legislature.
    • All of these choices ARE components of the Articles of Confederation.
  • 33. What is the proper role of the majority?
  • 34. Checks on the Majority
    • Selection of Senators
    • Bicameral Congress
    • Independent (non-elected)
    • Judiciary
    • Electoral College
  • 35. Checks on the Majority
    • Selection of Senators
    • Bicameral Congress
    • Independent (non-elected)
    • Judiciary
    • Electoral College
  • 36. Checks on the Majority
    • Selection of Senators
    • Bicameral Congress
    • Independent (non-elected) Judiciary
    • Electoral College
  • 37. Checks on the Majority
    • Selection of Senators
    • Bicameral Congress
    • Independent (non-elected) Judiciary
    • Electoral College
  • 38.  
  • 39. Fragmented Government
  • 40. #1: Separation of Powers
  • 41. Central Government / Authority Executive Legislative Judicial
  • 42. Legislative Executive Judicial
  • 43. #2: Checks & Balances
  • 44.  
  • 45. #3: Federalism
  • 46. Madison argued that the best way to control self-interest in government was to have:
    • a democratic form of government.
    • a republican form of government.
    • an educated public.
    • strong religious organizations.
  • 47. Objectives of a Republican Form of Government
  • 48. Government based on popular consent Government possesses limited power
  • 49. The Constitutional Convention May 25 - September 17, 1787
  • 50. The Aerogel Revolution?
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53. Structural Compromises
  • 54. The Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population.
      • Upper House elected by Lower House.
    • Single Executive
    • Federal Judiciary
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 55. The Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population.
      • Upper House elected by Lower House.
    • Single Executive
    • Federal Judiciary
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 56. The Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population.
      • Upper House elected by Lower House.
    • Single Executive
    • Federal Judiciary
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 57. The Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population.
      • Upper House elected by Lower House.
    • Single Executive
    • Federal Judiciary
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 58. The Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House popularly elected, apportioned by population.
      • Upper House elected by Lower House.
    • Single Executive
    • Federal Judiciary
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 59. New Jersey Plan
    • Cautious revision of Articles, not a wholly new approach.
    • Small-state delegates figured out they were getting pwnd.
    • Madison could have run roughshod over small-state delegates, but didn’t.
  • 60. New Jersey Plan
    • Cautious revision of Articles, not a wholly new approach.
    • Small-state delegates figured out they were getting pwnd.
    • Madison could have run roughshod over small-state delegates, but didn’t.
  • 61. “ You see the consequences of pushing things too far. Some members from the small states wish for two branches in the General Legislature and are friends to a good National Government; but we would sooner submit to a foreign power than…be deprived of an equality of suffrage in both branches of the legislature, and thereby be thrown under the domination of the large States.” John Dickinson, Delaware
  • 62. New Jersey Plan
    • Cautious revision of Articles, not a wholly new approach.
    • Small-state delegates figured out they were getting pwnd.
    • Madison could have run roughshod over small-state delegates, but didn’t.
  • 63. Recognition of hard political reality, NOT an acquiescence to “states’ rights”
  • 64. New Jersey Plan
    • Favored strong national government in principle, opposed domination of large states
    • Unicameral legislature (one vote each state)
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 65. New Jersey Plan
    • Favored strong national government in principle, opposed domination of large states
    • Unicameral legislature (one vote each state)
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 66. New Jersey Plan
    • Favored strong national government in principle, opposed domination of large states
    • Unicameral legislature (one vote each state)
    • Supremacy Clause
  • 67. Hamilton’s Wacked-Out Monarch-for-Life Plan
  • 68.  
  • 69.  
  • 70. “ No thanks!
  • 71. Hamilton’s Wacked-Out Monarch-for-Life Plan
  • 72.
    • Paterson lost, but did achieve his purpose…
    • Connecticut delegation actually came up with the compromise early, but were ignored
    The Connecticut Compromise
  • 73.
    • Paterson lost, but did achieve his purpose…
    • Connecticut delegation actually came up with the compromise early, but were ignored
    The Connecticut Compromise
  • 74.
    • Article I, Sections 2 & 3
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected.
      • Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures.
    • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2)
    The Connecticut Compromise
  • 75.
    • Article I, Sections 2 & 3
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected.
      • Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures.
    • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2)
    The Connecticut Compromise
  • 76.
    • Article I, Sections 2 & 3
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected.
      • Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures.
    • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2)
    The Connecticut Compromise
  • 77.
    • Article I, Sections 2 & 3
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected.
      • Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures.
    • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2)
    The Connecticut Compromise
  • 78.
    • Article I, Sections 2 & 3
    • Bicameral Legislature
      • Lower House apportioned by population, popularly elected.
      • Upper House equal representation (2), selected by State Legislatures.
    • Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2)
    The Connecticut Compromise
  • 79. In order to uphold the basic values of democracy, the Constitution was designed to include which of the following?
    • mixed government
    • fragmentation of power
    • representative government
    • all of the above
  • 80. Other Compromises
  • 81.  
  • 82. The Three-Fifths Compromise
  • 83. Presidential Elections
  • 84. The formal constitutional amendment process provides for all of the following EXCEPT:
    • Congress may develop proposals for amendments.
    • a national Constitutional Convention to develop proposals.
    • the President may develop a proposal for an amendment.
    • state Constitutional Conventions to ratify amendments.
  • 85.  
  • 86. Something to Ponder…
  • 87. Something to Ponder… … Government is slow and “inefficient” because it was designed to work that way!