The Congress

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Slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on the U.S. Congress for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2008. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

Slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on the U.S. Congress for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2008. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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  • 1. The Congress Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  • 2. The First Congress
  • 3. Federal Hall, NYC
  • 4. # of Members 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
  • 5. 435 # of Members 100 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
  • 6. 1912 > 435 # of Members 100 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
  • 7. PROBLEM: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails?
  • 8. Volume of Business # of Responsibilities
  • 9. Volume of Business # of Responsibilities
  • 10. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
  • 11. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
  • 12. (cc) 2008 Flickr User charsplat
  • 13. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Joe Lanman
  • 14. Congress has become more institutionalized
  • 15. Congress has become more professionalized
  • 16. Who is Congress, Anyway?
  • 17. 80% (cc) Flickr user vidrio
  • 18. The American People CONGRESS
  • 19. (cc) 2006 flickr user mahalie
  • 20. The numbers in the 110th Congress: HOUSE SENATE African- 42 1 Americans Jews 30 13 Hispanics 27 3 Asian- 3 2 Americans Arab- 0 1 Americans Native 1 0 Americans Women 74 16
  • 21. SENATE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
  • 22. Does CLASS matter?
  • 23. Thinking About Representation: The Senate
  • 24. 2
  • 25. 100
  • 26. Ratios and Inequities: Small vs. Large States
  • 27. 17%
  • 28. 135?
  • 29. 10 - 2 15 - 1 25 - 0
  • 30. A Senator for D.C.?
  • 31. National Senators?
  • 32. 10
  • 33. Electoral Districts: The House of Representatives
  • 34. 435
  • 35. 1000?
  • 36. Reapportionment The number of seats in the House of Representatives allotted to a state changes every 10 years based on changes in population determined by the Census.
  • 37. The Power and Influence of State Legislatures
  • 38. Sushicircus © 2006 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sushicircus/292399888/
  • 39. Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) Supreme Court ruled principle of “one person, one vote” applied to congressional districts.
  • 40. RESULT: congressional districts all now approximately the same size.
  • 41. The Problem of “Mid-Decade” Redistricting
  • 42. Gerrymandering When district boundary lines are drawn to ensure the election of a particular party, group or person.
  • 43. Racial gerrymandering & “Majority Minority” districts
  • 44. Incumbency
  • 45. Today’s U.S. Congress is considered the world’s foremost example of a “professional legislature.”
  • 46. R-E-S-P-E-C-T
  • 47. Fenno’s Paradox Citizens invariably rate their members of Congress far more favorably than they rate the Congress as a whole.
  • 48. Advantages of Incumbency
  • 49. (cc) 2007 Flickr user smenzel Franking Privilege
  • 50. Travel Budget (cc) 2006 Flickr user John Wardell (Netinho)
  • 51. +
  • 52. Constituent Service
  • 53. The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
  • 54. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • 55. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • 56. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • 57. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • 58. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • 59. Congressional Leadership
  • 60. House Leadership
  • 61. Speaker of the House •Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. •Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). •Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  • 62. Speaker of the House •Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. •Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). •Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  • 63. Speaker of the House •Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. •Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). •Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  • 64. Speaker of the House •Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. •Assigns members to conference committees.
  • 65. Speaker of the House •Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. •Assigns members to conference committees.
  • 66. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • 67. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • 68. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • 69. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • 70. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • 71. Majority Leader • Plays significant role within the party by working to prevent minor spats, internal quarrels from developing into destructive feuds.
  • 72. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • 73. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • 74. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • 75. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • 76. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  • 77. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  • 78. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  • 79. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  • 80. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  • 81. Whips (Majority & Minority) • “Third Base Coach” • Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader
  • 82. Whips (Majority & Minority) • “Third Base Coach” • Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader
  • 83. Senate Leadership
  • 84. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • 85. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • 86. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • 87. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • 88. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • 89. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • 90. Senate Leadership • Majority Whip – Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. – Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. • Minority Leader and Whip – Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  • 91. Senate Leadership • Majority Whip – Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. – Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. • Minority Leader and Whip – Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  • 92. Senate Leadership • Majority Whip – Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. – Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. • Minority Leader and Whip – Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  • 93. How a Bill Becomes a Law
  • 94. How a Bill Becomes a Law • Types of Legislation • Introducing a Bill • Committee Action • Floor Action • Conference Committee • Presidential Action
  • 95. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • 96. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • 97. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • 98. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • 99. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • 100. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • 101. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • 102. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • 103. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • 104. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • 105. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • 106. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • 107. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • 108. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • 109. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • 110. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • 111. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • 112. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • 113. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • 114. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • 115. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • 116. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • 117. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • 118. Committee Action • SO, bills can be brought to floor despite committee rejection, but this is EXTREMELY rare.
  • 119. Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
  • 120. Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
  • 121. Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
  • 122. Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
  • 123. Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
  • 124. Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
  • 125. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • 126. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • 127. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • 128. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • 129. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • 130. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • 131. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • 132. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • 133. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • 134. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • 135. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • 136. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • 137. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • 138. Floor Action • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
  • 139. Floor Action • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
  • 140. Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  • 141. Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  • 142. Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  • 143. Presidential Action • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
  • 144. Presidential Action • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
  • 145. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • 146. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • 147. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • 148. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • 149. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.