The Congress




Dr. Christopher S. Rice
The First Congress
Federal
 Hall,
 NYC
# of Members




                         65
                 26

               SENATE   HOUSE
435
# of Members




                100
                         65
                 26

               SENATE   HOUSE
1912 >   435
# of Members




                100
                                 65
                 26

               ...
PROBLEM:
  Can representatives effectively
represent that many people and the
      diversity that entails?
Volume of Business




                     # of Responsibilities
Volume of Business




                     # of Responsibilities
(cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
(cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
(cc) 2008 Flickr User charsplat
(cc) 2007 Flickr user Joe Lanman
Congress has become more
  institutionalized
Congress has become more
  professionalized
Who is Congress, Anyway?
80%
  (cc) Flickr user vidrio
The American People   CONGRESS
(cc) 2006 flickr user mahalie
The numbers in the 110th Congress:
               HOUSE   SENATE
   African-
                42       1
   Americans
   Je...
SENATE




             HOUSE OF
         REPRESENTATIVES
Does CLASS matter?
Thinking About Representation:
        The Senate
2
100
Ratios and Inequities:
Small vs. Large States
17%
135?
10 - 2
15 - 1
25 - 0
A Senator for D.C.?
National Senators?
10
Electoral Districts:
The House of Representatives
435
1000?
Reapportionment
   The number of seats in the
    House of Representatives
allotted to a state changes every
  10 years ba...
The Power and
Influence of State
  Legislatures
Sushicircus © 2006 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sushicircus/292399888/
Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)
Supreme Court ruled principle of
“one person, one vote” applied to
    congressional districts.
RESULT: congressional districts
all now approximately the same
size.
The Problem of
“Mid-Decade”
 Redistricting
Gerrymandering
When district boundary lines
   are drawn to ensure the
election of a particular party,
       group or per...
Racial gerrymandering
& “Majority Minority”
        districts
Incumbency
Today’s U.S. Congress is
  considered the world’s
  foremost example of a
“professional legislature.”
R-E-S-P-E-C-T
Fenno’s Paradox
Citizens invariably rate their
members of Congress far more
 favorably than they rate the
     Congress as...
Advantages of Incumbency
(cc) 2007 Flickr user smenzel




Franking Privilege
Travel Budget
         (cc) 2006 Flickr user John Wardell (Netinho)
+
Constituent Service
The problem of
“Safe Incumbency”
The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
 • Competitive vs. Non-competitive
   districts.
 • This tends to have a negative effect
...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
 • Competitive vs. Non-competitive
   districts.
 • This tends to have a negative effect
...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
 • Competitive vs. Non-competitive
   districts.
 • This tends to have a negative effect
...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
 • Competitive vs. Non-competitive
   districts.
 • This tends to have a negative effect
...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
 • Competitive vs. Non-competitive
   districts.
 • This tends to have a negative effect
...
Congressional Leadership
House Leadership
Speaker of the House
•Right to speak first on legislation
 during House debate.
•Power to recognize members (i.e.,
 give pe...
Speaker of the House
•Right to speak first on legislation
 during House debate.
•Power to recognize members (i.e.,
 give pe...
Speaker of the House
•Right to speak first on legislation
 during House debate.
•Power to recognize members (i.e.,
 give pe...
Speaker of the House
•Assigns bills to committees, places
 time limits on reporting of bills
 out of committees.
•Assigns ...
Speaker of the House
•Assigns bills to committees, places
 time limits on reporting of bills
 out of committees.
•Assigns ...
Majority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  majority party.
• Responsible for day-to-day
  operations, e.g.:
  –...
Majority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  majority party.
• Responsible for day-to-day
  operations, e.g.:
  –...
Majority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  majority party.
• Responsible for day-to-day
  operations, e.g.:
  –...
Majority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  majority party.
• Responsible for day-to-day
  operations, e.g.:
  –...
Majority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  majority party.
• Responsible for day-to-day
  operations, e.g.:
  –...
Majority Leader
• Plays significant role within the party
  by working to prevent minor spats,
  internal quarrels from dev...
Minority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  minority party, performs similar
  role as Majority Leader.
• Heads ...
Minority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  minority party, performs similar
  role as Majority Leader.
• Heads ...
Minority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  minority party, performs similar
  role as Majority Leader.
• Heads ...
Minority Leader
• Elected by full membership of the
  minority party, performs similar
  role as Majority Leader.
• Heads ...
Whips (Majority & Minority)
• Solicit votes from party
  members, inform them when
  critical votes are scheduled.
• Whips...
Whips (Majority & Minority)
• Solicit votes from party
  members, inform them when
  critical votes are scheduled.
• Whips...
Whips (Majority & Minority)
• Solicit votes from party
  members, inform them when
  critical votes are scheduled.
• Whips...
Whips (Majority & Minority)
• Solicit votes from party
  members, inform them when
  critical votes are scheduled.
• Whips...
Whips (Majority & Minority)
• Solicit votes from party
  members, inform them when
  critical votes are scheduled.
• Whips...
Whips (Majority & Minority)
• “Third Base Coach”
• Desirable position for people
  wanting to rise to the position of
  pa...
Whips (Majority & Minority)
• “Third Base Coach”
• Desirable position for people
  wanting to rise to the position of
  pa...
Senate Leadership
Senate Leadership
• President of the Senate
• President Pro Tempore
• Majority Leader
  – Formulates majority party’s poli...
Senate Leadership
• President of the Senate
• President Pro Tempore
• Majority Leader
  – Formulates majority party’s poli...
Senate Leadership
• President of the Senate
• President Pro Tempore
• Majority Leader
  – Formulates majority party’s poli...
Senate Leadership
• President of the Senate
• President Pro Tempore
• Majority Leader
  – Formulates majority party’s poli...
Senate Leadership
• President of the Senate
• President Pro Tempore
• Majority Leader
  – Formulates majority party’s poli...
Senate Leadership
• President of the Senate
• President Pro Tempore
• Majority Leader
  – Formulates majority party’s poli...
Senate Leadership
• Majority Whip
  –   Sees to it that members know when
      important votes are scheduled.
  –   Makes...
Senate Leadership
• Majority Whip
  –   Sees to it that members know when
      important votes are scheduled.
  –   Makes...
Senate Leadership
• Majority Whip
  –   Sees to it that members know when
      important votes are scheduled.
  –   Makes...
How a Bill Becomes a Law
How a Bill Becomes a Law
• Types of Legislation
• Introducing a Bill
• Committee Action
• Floor Action
• Conference Commit...
Types of Legislation
• Bill
  – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a
    number assigned in the order in which
    bills a...
Types of Legislation
• Bill
  – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a
    number assigned in the order in which
    bills a...
Types of Legislation
• Bill
  – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a
    number assigned in the order in which
    bills a...
Types of Legislation
• Bill
  – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a
    number assigned in the order in which
    bills a...
Introducing a bill
• Bills may only be introduced by a
  member of Congress. (Who writes it is
  another matter.)
• Sponso...
Introducing a bill
• Bills may only be introduced by a
  member of Congress. (Who writes it is
  another matter.)
• Sponso...
Introducing a bill
• Bills may only be introduced by a
  member of Congress. (Who writes it is
  another matter.)
• Sponso...
Introducing a bill
• Bills may only be introduced by a
  member of Congress. (Who writes it is
  another matter.)
• Sponso...
Introducing a bill
• Bills are introduced differently in
  each chamber:
  – House – member introduces a bill by
    placi...
Introducing a bill
• Bills are introduced differently in
  each chamber:
  – House – member introduces a bill by
    placi...
Introducing a bill
• Bills are introduced differently in
  each chamber:
  – House – member introduces a bill by
    placi...
Introducing a bill
• Bills are introduced differently in
  each chamber:
  – House – member introduces a bill by
    placi...
Committee Action
• After introduction, bill referred to
  appropriate standing committee.
• Most bills die at this stage. ...
Committee Action
• After introduction, bill referred to
  appropriate standing committee.
• Most bills die at this stage. ...
Committee Action
• After introduction, bill referred to
  appropriate standing committee.
• Most bills die at this stage. ...
Committee Action
• After introduction, bill referred to
  appropriate standing committee.
• Most bills die at this stage. ...
Committee Action
• After introduction, bill referred to
  appropriate standing committee.
• Most bills die at this stage. ...
Committee Action
• After introduction, bill referred to
  appropriate standing committee.
• Most bills die at this stage. ...
Committee Action
• Final Committee Action
• But what if the bill gets stuck in
  committee?
  – In both houses of Congress...
Committee Action
• Final Committee Action
• But what if the bill gets stuck in
  committee?
  – In both houses of Congress...
Committee Action
• Final Committee Action
• But what if the bill gets stuck in
  committee?
  – In both houses of Congress...
Committee Action
• Final Committee Action
• But what if the bill gets stuck in
  committee?
  – In both houses of Congress...
Committee Action
• Final Committee Action
• But what if the bill gets stuck in
  committee?
  – In both houses of Congress...
Committee Action
• SO, bills can be brought to floor
  despite committee rejection, but
  this is EXTREMELY rare.
Floor Action
• After being reported to the parent
  chamber by a standing committee, a
  bill must be scheduled for floor a...
Floor Action
• After being reported to the parent
  chamber by a standing committee, a
  bill must be scheduled for floor a...
Floor Action
• After being reported to the parent
  chamber by a standing committee, a
  bill must be scheduled for floor a...
Floor Action
•House – process much more
 complex due to size.
 – Uncontroversial, less important bills
   can be called up...
Floor Action
•House – process much more
 complex due to size.
 – Uncontroversial, less important bills
   can be called up...
Floor Action
•House – process much more
 complex due to size.
 – Uncontroversial, less important bills
   can be called up...
Floor Action
• Suspension of the Rules
  – Upon recognition, committee chair moves
    to consider a bill under suspension...
Floor Action
• Suspension of the Rules
  – Upon recognition, committee chair moves
    to consider a bill under suspension...
Floor Action
• Suspension of the Rules
  – Upon recognition, committee chair moves
    to consider a bill under suspension...
Floor Action
• Suspension of the Rules
  – Upon recognition, committee chair moves
    to consider a bill under suspension...
Floor Action
• Rules Committee
  – Important legislation (usually
    controversial) goes to the Rules
    Committee befor...
Floor Action
• Rules Committee
  – Important legislation (usually
    controversial) goes to the Rules
    Committee befor...
Floor Action
• Rules Committee
  – Important legislation (usually
    controversial) goes to the Rules
    Committee befor...
Floor Action
• Rules Committee
  – Important legislation (usually
    controversial) goes to the Rules
    Committee befor...
Floor Action
• Rules Committee
  – Important legislation (usually
    controversial) goes to the Rules
    Committee befor...
Floor Action
• Open vs. Closed Rule
  – Open Rule – members can propose
    amendments relevant to any of the bill’s
    s...
Floor Action
• Open vs. Closed Rule
  – Open Rule – members can propose
    amendments relevant to any of the bill’s
    s...
Floor Action
• Open vs. Closed Rule
  – Open Rule – members can propose
    amendments relevant to any of the bill’s
    s...
Floor Action
• Open vs. Closed Rule
  – Open Rule – members can propose
    amendments relevant to any of the bill’s
    s...
Floor Action
• If rule is accepted, bill is considered on
  the floor by the full chamber.
• After debate on proposal, voti...
Floor Action
• If rule is accepted, bill is considered on
  the floor by the full chamber.
• After debate on proposal, voti...
Conference Committee
• Conflicting versions must be rewritten
  so that a single bill gains the approval
  of both houses.
...
Conference Committee
• Conflicting versions must be rewritten
  so that a single bill gains the approval
  of both houses.
...
Conference Committee
• Conflicting versions must be rewritten
  so that a single bill gains the approval
  of both houses.
...
Presidential Action
• For a bill to pass it must receive the
  support of a simple majority (50% + 1)
  of the House or Se...
Presidential Action
• For a bill to pass it must receive the
  support of a simple majority (50% + 1)
  of the House or Se...
Presidential Action
• There are FOUR (4) possible actions
  the president may take:
  –   Sign the bill and it becomes law...
Presidential Action
• There are FOUR (4) possible actions
  the president may take:
  –   Sign the bill and it becomes law...
Presidential Action
• There are FOUR (4) possible actions
  the president may take:
  –   Sign the bill and it becomes law...
Presidential Action
• There are FOUR (4) possible actions
  the president may take:
  –   Sign the bill and it becomes law...
Presidential Action
• There are FOUR (4) possible actions
  the president may take:
  –   Sign the bill and it becomes law...
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
The Congress
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The Congress

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Slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on the U.S. Congress for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2008. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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Transcript of "The Congress"

  1. 1. The Congress Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The First Congress
  3. 3. Federal Hall, NYC
  4. 4. # of Members 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
  5. 5. 435 # of Members 100 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
  6. 6. 1912 > 435 # of Members 100 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
  7. 7. PROBLEM: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails?
  8. 8. Volume of Business # of Responsibilities
  9. 9. Volume of Business # of Responsibilities
  10. 10. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
  11. 11. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
  12. 12. (cc) 2008 Flickr User charsplat
  13. 13. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Joe Lanman
  14. 14. Congress has become more institutionalized
  15. 15. Congress has become more professionalized
  16. 16. Who is Congress, Anyway?
  17. 17. 80% (cc) Flickr user vidrio
  18. 18. The American People CONGRESS
  19. 19. (cc) 2006 flickr user mahalie
  20. 20. The numbers in the 110th Congress: HOUSE SENATE African- 42 1 Americans Jews 30 13 Hispanics 27 3 Asian- 3 2 Americans Arab- 0 1 Americans Native 1 0 Americans Women 74 16
  21. 21. SENATE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
  22. 22. Does CLASS matter?
  23. 23. Thinking About Representation: The Senate
  24. 24. 2
  25. 25. 100
  26. 26. Ratios and Inequities: Small vs. Large States
  27. 27. 17%
  28. 28. 135?
  29. 29. 10 - 2 15 - 1 25 - 0
  30. 30. A Senator for D.C.?
  31. 31. National Senators?
  32. 32. 10
  33. 33. Electoral Districts: The House of Representatives
  34. 34. 435
  35. 35. 1000?
  36. 36. Reapportionment The number of seats in the House of Representatives allotted to a state changes every 10 years based on changes in population determined by the Census.
  37. 37. The Power and Influence of State Legislatures
  38. 38. Sushicircus © 2006 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sushicircus/292399888/
  39. 39. Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) Supreme Court ruled principle of “one person, one vote” applied to congressional districts.
  40. 40. RESULT: congressional districts all now approximately the same size.
  41. 41. The Problem of “Mid-Decade” Redistricting
  42. 42. Gerrymandering When district boundary lines are drawn to ensure the election of a particular party, group or person.
  43. 43. Racial gerrymandering & “Majority Minority” districts
  44. 44. Incumbency
  45. 45. Today’s U.S. Congress is considered the world’s foremost example of a “professional legislature.”
  46. 46. R-E-S-P-E-C-T
  47. 47. Fenno’s Paradox Citizens invariably rate their members of Congress far more favorably than they rate the Congress as a whole.
  48. 48. Advantages of Incumbency
  49. 49. (cc) 2007 Flickr user smenzel Franking Privilege
  50. 50. Travel Budget (cc) 2006 Flickr user John Wardell (Netinho)
  51. 51. +
  52. 52. Constituent Service
  53. 53. The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
  54. 54. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  55. 55. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  56. 56. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  57. 57. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  58. 58. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: – Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. – Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. – Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  59. 59. Congressional Leadership
  60. 60. House Leadership
  61. 61. Speaker of the House •Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. •Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). •Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  62. 62. Speaker of the House •Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. •Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). •Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  63. 63. Speaker of the House •Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. •Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). •Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  64. 64. Speaker of the House •Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. •Assigns members to conference committees.
  65. 65. Speaker of the House •Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. •Assigns members to conference committees.
  66. 66. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  67. 67. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  68. 68. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  69. 69. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  70. 70. Majority Leader • Elected by full membership of the majority party. • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: – Scheduling legislation – Coordinating committee activity – Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation – Negotiating with outside institutions.
  71. 71. Majority Leader • Plays significant role within the party by working to prevent minor spats, internal quarrels from developing into destructive feuds.
  72. 72. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  73. 73. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  74. 74. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  75. 75. Minority Leader • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  76. 76. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  77. 77. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  78. 78. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  79. 79. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  80. 80. Whips (Majority & Minority) • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: – Explain positions – Outline Strategies – Count Votes
  81. 81. Whips (Majority & Minority) • “Third Base Coach” • Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader
  82. 82. Whips (Majority & Minority) • “Third Base Coach” • Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader
  83. 83. Senate Leadership
  84. 84. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  85. 85. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  86. 86. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  87. 87. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  88. 88. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  89. 89. Senate Leadership • President of the Senate • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader – Formulates majority party’s policy agenda – Encourages party members to support this agenda. – Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. – Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  90. 90. Senate Leadership • Majority Whip – Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. – Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. • Minority Leader and Whip – Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  91. 91. Senate Leadership • Majority Whip – Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. – Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. • Minority Leader and Whip – Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  92. 92. Senate Leadership • Majority Whip – Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. – Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. • Minority Leader and Whip – Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  93. 93. How a Bill Becomes a Law
  94. 94. How a Bill Becomes a Law • Types of Legislation • Introducing a Bill • Committee Action • Floor Action • Conference Committee • Presidential Action
  95. 95. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  96. 96. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  97. 97. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  98. 98. Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  99. 99. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  100. 100. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  101. 101. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  102. 102. Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  103. 103. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  104. 104. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  105. 105. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  106. 106. Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  107. 107. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  108. 108. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  109. 109. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  110. 110. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  111. 111. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  112. 112. Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  113. 113. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  114. 114. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  115. 115. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  116. 116. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  117. 117. Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  118. 118. Committee Action • SO, bills can be brought to floor despite committee rejection, but this is EXTREMELY rare.
  119. 119. Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
  120. 120. Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
  121. 121. Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
  122. 122. Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
  123. 123. Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
  124. 124. Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
  125. 125. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  126. 126. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  127. 127. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  128. 128. Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  129. 129. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  130. 130. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  131. 131. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  132. 132. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  133. 133. Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  134. 134. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  135. 135. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  136. 136. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  137. 137. Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  138. 138. Floor Action • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
  139. 139. Floor Action • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
  140. 140. Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  141. 141. Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  142. 142. Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  143. 143. Presidential Action • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
  144. 144. Presidential Action • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
  145. 145. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  146. 146. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  147. 147. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  148. 148. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  149. 149. Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.

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