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PowerPoint for Congress lectures for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

PowerPoint for Congress lectures for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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The Congress The Congress Presentation Transcript

  • The Congress Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  • Many scholars argue that the framers of the Constitution intended Congress to be the most powerful of the three branches of American government. Do you believe that the Congress is the most powerful branch of government today?
    • Yes, Congress remains most powerful
    • No, the president is more powerful than the Congress
    • No, the Supreme Court is more powerful than the Congress
    • Don’t know
  • The First Congress
    • First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City.
    • Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small
      • 1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states
      • 1st House of Rep. – 65 members
    • No standing committees
    • Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time.
  • The First Congress
    • First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City.
    • Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small
      • 1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states
      • 1st House of Rep. – 65 members
    • No standing committees
    • Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time.
  • The First Congress
    • First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City.
    • Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small
      • 1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states
      • 1st House of Rep. – 65 members
    • No standing committees
    • Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time.
  • The First Congress
    • First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City.
    • Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small
      • 1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states
      • 1st House of Rep. – 65 members
    • No standing committees
    • Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time.
  • Congress increases in size
    • Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435.
    • House froze the upper limit at 435 in 1912.
    • PROB: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails?
  • Congress increases in size
    • Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435.
    • House froze the upper limit at 435 in 1912.
    • PROB: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails?
  • Congress increases in size
    • Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435.
    • House froze the upper limit at 435 in 1912.
    • PROB: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails?
  • Increase in volume of Congressional Business
    • More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congress.
    • Size of Congressional Staff has significantly expanded.
    • Congress stays in session longer than in the past.
  • Increase in volume of Congressional Business
    • More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congress.
    • Size of Congressional Staff has significantly expanded.
    • Congress stays in session longer than in the past.
  • Increase in volume of Congressional Business
    • More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congress.
    • Size of Congressional Staff has significantly expanded .
    • Congress stays in session longer than in the past.
  • Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized
    • Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized.
    • Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements.
    • Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff.
    • Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice.
  • Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized
    • Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized.
    • Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements.
    • Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff.
    • Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice.
  • Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized
    • Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized.
    • Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements.
    • Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff.
    • Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice.
  • Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized
    • Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized.
    • Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements.
    • Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff.
    • Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice.
  • There are fewer women and minorities in the Congress than in the U.S. population in general. Do you believe that this is a problem in terms of the Congress’s ability to represent the U.S. population?
    • Yes, it is a problem. The Congress should “look like” America
    • No, it is not a problem. There is nothing about a person’s race or gender that affects his or her ability to represent others’ opinions.
    • Don’t know
  • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th Congress.
    • Remainder: teachers, journalists, former congressional aides, actors, athletes, etc.
    • The make up of Congress reflects very narrow slice of America’s citizenry.
  • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th Congress.
    • Remainder: teachers, journalists, former congressional aides, actors, athletes, etc.
    • The make up of Congress reflects very narrow slice of America’s citizenry.
  • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th Congress.
    • Remainder: teachers, journalists, former congressional aides, actors, athletes, etc.
    • The make up of Congress reflects very narrow slice of America’s citizenry.
  • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • Nearly all members of Congress have been white males – women and racial minorities are significantly underrepresented, esp. in the Senate.
  • The numbers in the 109th Congress:
      • 42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat
      • 1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.)
      • Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican)
      • Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats).
  • The numbers in the 109th Congress:
      • 42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat
      • 1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.)
      • Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican)
      • Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats).
  • The numbers in the 109th Congress:
      • 42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat
      • 1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.)
      • Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican)
      • Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats).
  • The numbers in the 109th Congress:
      • 42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat
      • 1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.)
      • Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican)
      • Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats).
  • SENATE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
  •  
  •  
  • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • Social Class
      • Members of Congress generally tend to be better educated than the rest of the population, and come from very high-income families.
      • Don’t come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds
    • What does this mean for democratic representation?
  • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • Social Class
      • Members of Congress generally tend to be better educated than the rest of the population, and come from very high-income families.
      • Don’t come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds
    • What does this mean for democratic representation?
  • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • Social Class
      • Members of Congress generally tend to be better educated than the rest of the population, and come from very high-income families.
      • Don’t come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds
    • What does this mean for democratic representation?
  • Electoral Districts
    • Senate
      • Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis.
      • Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process.
      • Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy?
      • Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population!
  • Electoral Districts
    • Senate
      • Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis.
      • Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process.
      • Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy?
      • Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population!
  • Electoral Districts
    • Senate
      • Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis.
      • Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process.
      • Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy?
      • Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population!
  • Electoral Districts
    • Senate
      • Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis.
      • Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process.
      • Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy?
      • Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population!
  • Which comes closer to your view about redistricting?
    • State legislatures should be able to draw congressional districts in whatever way they see fit
    • Congressional districts should be drawn in a way that benefits neither party
    • Don’t know
  • The proportional process of allotting congressional seats to each state is called
    • requisitioning.
    • apportionment.
    • gerrymandering.
    • the spoils system.
    0
  • Electoral Districts: The House of Representatives
  • Reapportionment The number of seats in the House of Representatives allotted to a state changes every 10 years based on changes in population determined by the Census.
  • The Power and Influence of State Legislatures
  • Sushicircus © 2006 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sushicircus/292399888/
  • Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) Supreme Court ruled principle of “one person, one vote” applied to congressional districts.
  • RESULT: congressional districts all now approximately the same size.
  • The Problem of “Mid-Decade” Redistricting
  • Gerrymandering When district boundary lines are drawn to ensure the election of a particular party, group or person.
  •  
  • Racial gerrymandering & “Majority Minority” districts
  • Should nonpartisan commissions take charge of redistricting?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Somewhat
  • Incumbency
  • Today’s U.S. Congress is considered the world’s foremost example of a “professional legislature.”
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • How do you feel about your own member of Congress?
    • Strongly positive
    • Somewhat positive
    • Somewhat negative
    • Strongly negative
    • Don’t know
  • R-E-S-P-E-C-T
  • Fenno’s Paradox Citizens invariably rate their members of Congress far more favorably than they rate the Congress as a whole.
  • Advantages of Incumbency
    • Incumbents have advantages, use them
      • Congressional resources are used to advertise accomplishments, keep their names before the public.
      • Pork Barrel Projects – the provision of federal dollars to one’s constituency in the form of contracts, facilities and subsidies.
      • Constituent Service – responding to their constituents’ individual needs.
  • +
  • Advantages of Incumbency
    • Incumbents have advantages, use them
      • Congressional resources are used to advertise accomplishments, keep their names before the public.
      • Pork Barrel Projects – the provision of federal dollars to one’s constituency in the form of contracts, facilities and subsidies.
      • Constituent Service – responding to their constituents’ individual needs.
  • Advantages of Incumbency
    • Incumbents have advantages, use them
      • Congressional resources are used to advertise accomplishments, keep their names before the public.
      • Pork Barrel Projects – the provision of federal dollars to one’s constituency in the form of contracts, facilities and subsidies.
      • Constituent Service – responding to their constituents’ individual needs.
  • The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
    • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts.
    • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways:
      • Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election.
      • Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover.
      • Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
    • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts.
    • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways:
      • Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election.
      • Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover.
      • Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
    • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts.
    • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways:
      • Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election.
      • Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover.
      • Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
    • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts.
    • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways:
      • Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election.
      • Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover.
      • Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  •  
  • The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
    • Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts.
    • This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways:
      • Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election.
      • Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover.
      • Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability).
  • Do you believe that it is best when Congress is controlled by the same party that controls the White House (unified government), or controlled by the party that does not control the White House (divided government)?
    • It is best to have unified government
    • It is best to have divided government
    • Neither is better than the other
    • Don’t know
  • Congressional Leadership
    • House and Senate are organized along party lines.
      • House Leadership
      • Senate Leadership
      • Committee Chairs
  • Congressional Leadership
    • House and Senate are organized along party lines.
      • House Leadership
      • Senate Leadership
      • Committee Chairs
  • House Leadership
  • Speaker of the House
    • Right to speak first on legislation during House debate.
    • Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor).
    • Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  • Speaker of the House
    • Right to speak first on legislation during House debate.
    • Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor).
    • Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  • Speaker of the House
    • Right to speak first on legislation during House debate.
    • Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor).
    • Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate).
  • Speaker of the House
    • Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees.
    • Assigns members to conference committees.
  • Speaker of the House
    • Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees.
    • Assigns members to conference committees.
  • Majority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the majority party.
    • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.:
      • Scheduling legislation
      • Coordinating committee activity
      • Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation
      • Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • Majority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the majority party.
    • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.:
      • Scheduling legislation
      • Coordinating committee activity
      • Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation
      • Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • Majority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the majority party.
    • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.:
      • Scheduling legislation
      • Coordinating committee activity
      • Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation
      • Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • Majority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the majority party.
    • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.:
      • Scheduling legislation
      • Coordinating committee activity
      • Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation
      • Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • Majority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the majority party.
    • Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.:
      • Scheduling legislation
      • Coordinating committee activity
      • Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation
      • Negotiating with outside institutions.
  • Majority Leader
    • Plays significant role within the party by working to prevent minor spats, internal quarrels from developing into destructive feuds.
  • Minority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader.
    • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee.
    • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber.
    • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • Minority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader.
    • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee.
    • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber.
    • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • Minority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader.
    • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee.
    • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber.
    • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • Minority Leader
    • Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader.
    • Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee.
    • Acts as party’s voice in the chamber.
    • Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions.
  • Whips (Majority & Minority)
    • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled.
    • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders:
      • Explain positions
      • Outline Strategies
      • Count Votes
  • How do you feel about Congress in general?
    • Strongly positive
    • Somewhat positive
    • Somewhat negative
    • Strongly negative
    • Don’t know
  • Whips (Majority & Minority)
    • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled.
    • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders:
      • Explain positions
      • Outline Strategies
      • Count Votes
  • Whips (Majority & Minority)
    • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled.
    • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders:
      • Explain positions
      • Outline Strategies
      • Count Votes
  • Whips (Majority & Minority)
    • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled.
    • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders:
      • Explain positions
      • Outline Strategies
      • Count Votes
  • Whips (Majority & Minority)
    • Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled.
    • Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders:
      • Explain positions
      • Outline Strategies
      • Count Votes
  • Whips (Majority & Minority)
    • “ Third Base Coach”
    • Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader
  • Whips (Majority & Minority)
    • “ Third Base Coach”
    • Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader
  • The Senator chosen by his or her colleagues to preside over the Senate when the Vice President is not available is called the:
    • majority leader.
    • president pro Tempore.
    • worshipful master.
    • president of the Senate.
  • Senate Leadership
    • President of the Senate
    • President Pro Tempore
    • Majority Leader
      • Formulates majority party’s policy agenda
      • Encourages party members to support this agenda.
      • Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate.
      • Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • Senate Leadership
    • President of the Senate
    • President Pro Tempore
    • Majority Leader
      • Formulates majority party’s policy agenda
      • Encourages party members to support this agenda.
      • Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate.
      • Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • Senate Leadership
    • President of the Senate
    • President Pro Tempore
    • Majority Leader
      • Formulates majority party’s policy agenda
      • Encourages party members to support this agenda.
      • Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate.
      • Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • Senate Leadership
    • President of the Senate
    • President Pro Tempore
    • Majority Leader
      • Formulates majority party’s policy agenda
      • Encourages party members to support this agenda.
      • Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate.
      • Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • Senate Leadership
    • President of the Senate
    • President Pro Tempore
    • Majority Leader
      • Formulates majority party’s policy agenda
      • Encourages party members to support this agenda.
      • Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate.
      • Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • Senate Leadership
    • President of the Senate
    • President Pro Tempore
    • Majority Leader
      • Formulates majority party’s policy agenda
      • Encourages party members to support this agenda.
      • Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate.
      • Generates “unanimous consent agreements”.
  • Senate Leadership
    • Majority Whip
      • Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled.
      • Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor.
    • Minority Leader and Whip
      • Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  • Senate Leadership
    • Majority Whip
      • Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled.
      • Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor.
    • Minority Leader and Whip
      • Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  • Senate Leadership
    • Majority Whip
      • Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled.
      • Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor.
    • Minority Leader and Whip
      • Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House.
  • Committee Chairs
  • What do committee chairs do?
    • schedules committee meetings
    • determines the order in which committee bills are considered
    • presides over committee discussions
    • directs the committee’s majority staff
    • may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership.
  • What do committee chairs do?
    • schedules committee meetings
    • determines the order in which committee bills are considered
    • presides over committee discussions
    • directs the committee’s majority staff
    • may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership.
  • What do committee chairs do?
    • schedules committee meetings
    • determines the order in which committee bills are considered
    • presides over committee discussions
    • directs the committee’s majority staff
    • may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership.
  • What do committee chairs do?
    • schedules committee meetings
    • determines the order in which committee bills are considered
    • presides over committee discussions
    • directs the committee’s majority staff
    • may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership.
  • What do committee chairs do?
    • schedules committee meetings
    • determines the order in which committee bills are considered
    • presides over committee discussions
    • directs the committee’s majority staff
    • may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership.
  • Committee Chairs
    • Seniority
    • Advantages of the seniority system:
      • Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election.
      • Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership.
      • Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee.
    • Seniority system has been weakened in recent years
  • Committee Chairs
    • Seniority
    • Advantages of the seniority system:
      • Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election.
      • Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership.
      • Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee.
    • Seniority system has been weakened in recent years
  • Committee Chairs
    • Seniority
    • Advantages of the seniority system:
      • Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election.
      • Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership.
      • Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee.
    • Seniority system has been weakened in recent years
  • Committee Chairs
    • Seniority
    • Advantages of the seniority system:
      • Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election.
      • Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership.
      • Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee.
    • Seniority system has been weakened in recent years
  • Committee Chairs
    • Seniority
    • Advantages of the seniority system:
      • Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election.
      • Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership.
      • Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee.
    • Seniority system has been weakened in recent years
  • Committee members have a powerful influence on legislation, because:
    • committee members are more knowledgeable about legislation than non-committee members.
    • committee members are more interested in legislation than non-committee members.
    • committee members often get to know the interest groups and agencies that would be associated with legislation.
    • all of these choices.
  • The Committee System
    • Purposes of Committees
      • Serve as screening devices
      • Permit specialization
      • Allow committee members to generate benefits for their home districts or states.
  • The Committee System
    • Purposes of Committees
      • Serve as screening devices
      • Permit specialization
      • Allow committee members to generate benefits for their home districts or states.
  • The Committee System
    • Purposes of Committees
      • Serve as screening devices
      • Permit specialization
      • Allow committee members to generate benefits for their home districts or states.
  • Do you approve of Congress’ recent move to call upon the President to not escalate the war in Iraq?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Don’t Know/Don’t Give a Flying Flip
  • The Committee System
    • Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction).
      • Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate
      • House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many.
      • Each standing committee has its own staff.
  • The Committee System
    • Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction).
      • Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate
      • House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many.
      • Each standing committee has its own staff.
  • The Committee System
    • Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction).
      • Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate
      • House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many.
      • Each standing committee has its own staff.
  • The Committee System
    • Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction).
      • Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate
      • House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many.
      • Each standing committee has its own staff.
  • The Committee System
    • Powers of committees
      • Each standing committee has legislative authority.
      • Can also recommend passage or defeat of legislation.
      • Legislation can effectively be “bottled up” in these committees.
  • The Committee System
    • Powers of committees
      • Each standing committee has legislative authority.
      • Can also recommend passage or defeat of legislation.
      • Legislation can effectively be “bottled up” in these committees.
  • The Committee System
    • Powers of committees
      • Each standing committee has legislative authority.
      • Can also recommend passage or defeat of legislation.
      • Legislation can effectively be “bottled up” in these committees.
  • The Committee System
    • Other types of committees:
      • Subcommittees
        • Hearings
        • Negotiations
        • Markup for most bills
      • Select Committees
        • Temporary ( ad hoc ) committees created to conduct investigations or studies.
        • Handle matters standing committees, subcommittees do not handle or wish to handle.
  • The Committee System
    • Other types of committees:
      • Subcommittees
        • Hearings
        • Negotiations
        • Markup for most bills
      • Select Committees
        • Temporary ( ad hoc ) committees created to conduct investigations or studies.
        • Handle matters standing committees, subcommittees do not handle or wish to handle.
  • The Committee System
    • Other types of committees (cont’d):
      • Joint Committees
        • Conference Committees – joint committee formed to reconcile House and Senate differences in a bill that has passed both houses but in different forms.
  • How a Bill Becomes a Law
    • Types of Legislation
    • Introducing a Bill
    • Committee Action
    • Floor Action
    • Conference Committee
    • Presidential Action
  • Types of Legislation
    • Bill
      • Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced.
    • Joint Resolution
      • Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res.
    • Concurrent Resolution
      • Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res.
    • Resolution
      • Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • Types of Legislation
    • Bill
      • Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced.
    • Joint Resolution
      • Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res.
    • Concurrent Resolution
      • Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res.
    • Resolution
      • Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • Types of Legislation
    • Bill
      • Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced.
    • Joint Resolution
      • Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res.
    • Concurrent Resolution
      • Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res.
    • Resolution
      • Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • Types of Legislation
    • Bill
      • Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced.
    • Joint Resolution
      • Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res.
    • Concurrent Resolution
      • Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res.
    • Resolution
      • Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.)
    • Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill.
    • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house.
    • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.)
    • Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill.
    • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house.
    • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • Tax bills MUST originate in the:
    • House of Representatives
    • Senate
    • White House
    • Internal Revenue Service
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.)
    • Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill.
    • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house.
    • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.)
    • Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill.
    • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house.
    • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber:
      • House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper .
      • Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) .
    • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber:
      • House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper .
      • Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) .
    • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber:
      • House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper .
      • Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) .
    • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • Introducing a bill
    • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber:
      • House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper .
      • Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) .
    • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
  • Committee Action
    • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee.
    • Most bills die at this stage. Why?
    • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee.
      • Hearings
      • Markup
      • Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • Committee Action
    • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee.
    • Most bills die at this stage. Why?
    • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee.
      • Hearings
      • Markup
      • Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • Committee Action
    • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee.
    • Most bills die at this stage. Why?
    • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee.
      • Hearings
      • Markup
      • Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • Committee Action
    • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee.
    • Most bills die at this stage. Why?
    • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee.
      • Hearings
      • Markup
      • Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • Committee Action
    • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee.
    • Most bills die at this stage. Why?
    • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee.
      • Hearings
      • Markup
      • Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • Committee Action
    • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee.
    • Most bills die at this stage. Why?
    • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee.
      • Hearings
      • Markup
      • Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
  • Committee Action
    • Final Committee Action
    • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee?
      • In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill.
      • Discharge Petition
      • Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • Committee Action
    • Final Committee Action
    • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee?
      • In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill.
      • Discharge Petition
      • Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • Committee Action
    • Final Committee Action
    • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee?
      • In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill.
      • Discharge Petition
      • Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • Committee Action
    • Final Committee Action
    • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee?
      • In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill.
      • Discharge Petition
      • Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • Committee Action
    • Final Committee Action
    • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee?
      • In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill.
      • Discharge Petition
      • Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
  • Committee Action
    • SO, bills can be brought to floor despite committee rejection, but this is EXTREMELY rare.
  • When a member of the Senate chooses to speak for hours or days at a time for the purpose of delaying action on an unfavorable bill, or to gain favor for his or her bill, it is known as a:
    • filibuster.
    • courtesy.
    • policy response.
    • caucus.
  • Floor Action
    • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action.
    • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal.
      • Unrestricted debate and the Senate.
      • Filibuster
      • Cloture
  • Floor Action
    • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action.
    • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal.
      • Unrestricted debate and the Senate.
      • Filibuster
      • Cloture
  • Floor Action
    • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action.
    • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal.
      • Unrestricted debate and the Senate.
      • Filibuster
      • Cloture
  •  
  • Floor Action
    • House – process much more complex due to size.
      • Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate.
      • suspension of the rules .
  • Floor Action
    • House – process much more complex due to size.
      • Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate.
      • suspension of the rules .
  • Floor Action
    • House – process much more complex due to size.
      • Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate.
      • suspension of the rules .
  • Floor Action
    • Suspension of the Rules
      • Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension.
      • If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor.
      • Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation.
      • Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • Floor Action
    • Suspension of the Rules
      • Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension.
      • If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor.
      • Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation.
      • Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • Floor Action
    • Suspension of the Rules
      • Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension.
      • If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor.
      • Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation.
      • Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • Floor Action
    • Suspension of the Rules
      • Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension.
      • If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor.
      • Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation.
      • Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
  • Floor Action
    • Rules Committee
      • Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor.
      • Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate.
      • It determines:
        • If and/or when it should be sent to the floor
        • If and/or how long debate is allowed
        • Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • Floor Action
    • Rules Committee
      • Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor.
      • Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate.
      • It determines:
        • If and/or when it should be sent to the floor
        • If and/or how long debate is allowed
        • Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • Floor Action
    • Rules Committee
      • Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor.
      • Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate.
      • It determines:
        • If and/or when it should be sent to the floor
        • If and/or how long debate is allowed
        • Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • Floor Action
    • Rules Committee
      • Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor.
      • Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate.
      • It determines:
        • If and/or when it should be sent to the floor
        • If and/or how long debate is allowed
        • Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • When bills are considered for debate (in the House) and no amendments are permitted, it is being considered under what rule?
    • The closed rule.
    • The non-germane amendment rule.
    • The amendment rule.
    • The limited debate rule.
  • Floor Action
    • Rules Committee
      • Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor.
      • Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate.
      • It determines:
        • If and/or when it should be sent to the floor
        • If and/or how long debate is allowed
        • Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
  • Floor Action
    • Open vs. Closed Rule
      • Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections.
      • Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed.
    • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • Floor Action
    • Open vs. Closed Rule
      • Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections.
      • Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed.
    • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • Floor Action
    • Open vs. Closed Rule
      • Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections.
      • Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed.
    • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • Floor Action
    • Open vs. Closed Rule
      • Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections.
      • Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed.
    • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
  • Floor Action
    • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber.
    • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
  • Floor Action
    • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber.
    • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
  • Committees made of members of the House and Senate whose purpose it is to reconcile differences in versions of a bill passed in each chamber are known as:
    • caucuses.
    • conference committees.
    • oversight committees.
    • party committees.
  • Conference Committee
    • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses.
    • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed.
    • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  • Conference Committee
    • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses.
    • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed.
    • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  • Conference Committee
    • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses.
    • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed.
    • Negotiation – theory and practice.
  • Presidential Action
    • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it.
    • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
  • Presidential Action
    • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it.
    • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
  • Presidential Action
    • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take:
      • Sign the bill and it becomes law.
      • Veto the bill and return it to Congress.
      • Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days.
      • Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • Presidential Action
    • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take:
      • Sign the bill and it becomes law.
      • Veto the bill and return it to Congress.
      • Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days.
      • Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • Presidential Action
    • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take:
      • Sign the bill and it becomes law.
      • Veto the bill and return it to Congress.
      • Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days.
      • Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • Presidential Action
    • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take:
      • Sign the bill and it becomes law.
      • Veto the bill and return it to Congress.
      • Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days.
      • Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • Presidential Action
    • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take:
      • Sign the bill and it becomes law.
      • Veto the bill and return it to Congress.
      • Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days.
      • Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
  • Signing Statements
  •  
  • Conclusion
    • Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever gets made.
    • Passing a single statute requires going through two chambers (which have more than 200 committees & subcommittee).
    • Usually requires support of members of both parties as well as interest groups
  • Conclusion
    • Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever gets made.
    • Passing a single statute requires going through two chambers (which have more than 200 committees & subcommittee).
    • Usually requires support of members of both parties as well as interest groups
  • Conclusion
    • Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever gets made.
    • Passing a single statute requires going through two chambers (which have more than 200 committees & subcommittee).
    • Usually requires support of members of both parties as well as interest groups
  • Conclusion
    • There are an amazing number of points in the obstacle course at which a bill can be shot down. How on earth does anything get done?
    • But somehow, it does. Remember, the Founders designed the process so that it WOULD be difficult to get things done.
  • Conclusion
    • There are an amazing number of points in the obstacle course at which a bill can be shot down. How on earth does anything get done?
    • But somehow, it does. Remember, the Founders designed the process so that it WOULD be difficult to get things done.