PS 240 Marxism Spring 2009

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PS 240 Marxism Spring 2009

  1. 1. Marxism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The Early Marx
  3. 3. Marx Becomes A Philosopher
  4. 4. 2 effects of his career in Journalism
  5. 5. He came to appreciate the central social and political importance of economics
  6. 6. He ceased to be a liberal and became a radical
  7. 7. The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
  8. 8. Hegel and his influence on Marxism
  9. 9. Hegel’s Philosophy of History
  10. 10. Geist
  11. 11. Alienation (entfremdung)
  12. 12. Dialectic the process whereby opposite views or forces come into conflict, which eventually leads to the overcoming or reconciliation of the opposition in a new and presumably higher form
  13. 13. THESIS + ANTITHESIS = SYNTHESIS
  14. 14. The Master-Slave Dialectic
  15. 15. The Master-Slave Dialectic • The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves.
  16. 16. The Master-Slave Dialectic • The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. • Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other.
  17. 17. The Master-Slave Dialectic • The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. • Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. • The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship.
  18. 18. The Master-Slave Dialectic • The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. • Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. • The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. • The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship.
  19. 19. The Master-Slave Dialectic • The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. • Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. • The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. • The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. • The true relationship revealed through resistance.
  20. 20. The Master-Slave Dialectic • The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. • Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. • The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. • The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. • The true relationship revealed through resistance. • A Happy Conclusion…
  21. 21. History as the Story of Human Labor and Struggle
  22. 22. “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.”
  23. 23. Materialist vs. Idealist
  24. 24. Material Forces of Production + Social Relations of Production = Material Production
  25. 25. Material Forces of Production
  26. 26. Social Relations of Production
  27. 27. The Dialectic of Class
  28. 28. Class determined by relation to the forces of production
  29. 29. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages:
  30. 30. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: •Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion
  31. 31. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: •Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion •Control of the Mental Means of Production
  32. 32. False Consciousness
  33. 33. Base & Superstructure
  34. 34. Marx’s Materialist Conception of Society (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) IDEOLOGICAL SUPERSTRUCTURE IDEAS, IDEALS, BELIEFS (Morality, Law, Religion, Etc.) SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION BASE MATERIAL FORCES OF PRODUCTION (“Productive Forces”)
  35. 35. “Religion is the opiate of the masses”
  36. 36. “Religious distress is at the same time the expression of real distress and the protest against real distress. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of a spiritless situation. It is the opiate of the people…
  37. 37. “The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition that needs illusions…
  38. 38. The criticism of religion is therefore in embryo the criticism of the vale of woe, the halo of which is religion. Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers from the chain, not so that man will wear the chain without any fantasy or consolation…
  39. 39. …but so that he will shake off the chain and cull the living flower. Karl Marx Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right.
  40. 40. Possessive Individualism
  41. 41. Marx’s Critique of Capitalism
  42. 42. “The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a most revolutionary part.”
  43. 43. Capitalism’s 3 important progressive functions
  44. 44. 1. Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism
  45. 45. 1. Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism 2. Capitalism has made men masters over nature
  46. 46. 1. Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism 2. Capitalism has made men masters over nature 3. Capitalism requires constant innovation and change
  47. 47. So why should Capitalism be replaced???
  48. 48. 3
  49. 49. Capitalism is Outmoded
  50. 50. Capitalism creates Alienation
  51. 51. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism:
  52. 52. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: 1. They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce.
  53. 53. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: 1. They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. 2. They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor.
  54. 54. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: 1. They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. 2. They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. 3. Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society.
  55. 55. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: 1. They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. 2. They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. 3. Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. 4. Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete for jobs & wages.
  56. 56. Capitalism is Self-subverting
  57. 57. Why capitalism is DOOOOOOOMED!
  58. 58. Capitalism contains within itself the seeds of its own destruction
  59. 59. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic •The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it •The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” •The Dialectic turns… •Establishing the classless society
  60. 60. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic •The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it •The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” •The Dialectic turns… •Establishing the classless society
  61. 61. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic •The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it •The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” •The Dialectic turns… •Establishing the classless society
  62. 62. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic •The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it •The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” •The Dialectic turns… •Establishing the classless society
  63. 63. The Revolutionary Sequence COMMUNISM WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT SEIZURE OF STATE POWER REVOLUTIONARY CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS IMMISERATION OF THE PROLETARIAT ECONOMIC CRISES
  64. 64. The Marxist View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) OBSTACLE: Class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal life chances, “False Consciousnessquot; AGENT: GOAL: Common/ Working Fulfillment of People; human potential The proletariat and needs
  65. 65. Architecture vs. Capitalism
  66. 66. “Capitalism, he discovered, produced only ugly, pretentious luxury goods for slave owners and ugly, shoddy goods for slaves.” - A.L. Morton
  67. 67. The Arts & Crafts Movement
  68. 68. “I have tried to produce goods which should be genuine as far as their mere substances are concerned, and should have on that account the primary beauty in them which belongs to naturally treated substances.” William Morris
  69. 69. Artistic Criticism Social Criticism
  70. 70. Morris Transforms
  71. 71. Morris’ Marxism
  72. 72. The problem of political action: “Making Marxists”
  73. 73. Morris’ Principles •It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and be of itself pleasant to do; and which should be done under such conditions as would make it neither over-wearisome nor over- anxious. •Nothing should be made by men’s labour which is not worth making; or which must be made by labour degrading to the makers.
  74. 74. Morris’ Principles •It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and be of itself pleasant to do; and which should be done under such conditions as would make it neither over-wearisome nor over- anxious. •Nothing should be made by men’s labour which is not worth making; or which must be made by labour degrading to the makers.
  75. 75. Morris’ Principles • No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him all due necessities of mind and body. – Honourable and fitting work – Decency of Surroundings – Leisure • It is NECESSARY to human well-being that “In a well ordered state of Society every man willing to work should be ensured honourable and fitting work, a healthy and beautiful house, and full leisure for mind and body.”
  76. 76. Morris’ Principles • No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him all due necessities of mind and body. – Honourable and fitting work – Decency of Surroundings – Leisure • It is NECESSARY to human well-being that “In a well ordered state of Society every man willing to work should be ensured honourable and fitting work, a healthy and beautiful house, and full leisure for mind and body.”
  77. 77. Lenin’s Contributions to Marxism
  78. 78. Vanguard Party
  79. 79. Marx vs. Lenin
  80. 80. The Party’s chief role is to agitate, organize, and educate the workers, teaching them where their “true” interests lie.
  81. 81. The Intellectuals MUST Lead!
  82. 82. No faith in the “working-class mentality”
  83. 83. • Monopoly arose out of the concentration of production at a very advanced stage of development. • Monopolies have accellerated the capture of the most important sources of raw materials. • Monopoly has sprung from the banks (creation of a financial oligarchy). • Monopoly has grown out of colonial policy.
  84. 84. Imperialism
  85. 85. Four Conclusions:
  86. 86. Four Conclusions: 1. Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system.
  87. 87. Four Conclusions: 1. Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. 2. Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution.
  88. 88. Four Conclusions: 1. Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. 2. Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution. 3. The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class.
  89. 89. Four Conclusions: 1. Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. 2. Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution. 3. The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class. 4. The revolution will come FIRST to those areas most immiserated and led by an active vanguard party.
  90. 90. Maoism: Marxism “through a glass, darkly”
  91. 91. Heavily influenced by Lenin’s Imperialism
  92. 92. Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons:
  93. 93. Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons: 1. Poor peasant farmers were an overwhelming majority of the Chinese population, and if organized and mobilized, would provide an almost irresistible force.
  94. 94. Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons: 1. Poor peasant farmers were an overwhelming majority of the Chinese population, and if organized and mobilized, would provide an almost irresistible force. 2. They were the poorest and most oppressed segment of the population. They had nothing to lose but everything to gain from revolution against their oppressors.
  95. 95. Urban Proletariat Peasantry
  96. 96. Mao vs. Marx •Material or •Subjective Conditions Objective Conditions •Consciousness •Political Will
  97. 97. The Class Struggle recast…
  98. 98. Importance of the Vanguard Party
  99. 99. Die Institut für Sozialforschung
  100. 100. The Frankfurt School

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