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Liberalism
Dr. Christopher S. Rice
The American
Political Spectrum is
small …
(cc) 2005 Flickr user jurvetson

The Western
Transformation
1500-1700

4
(cc) 2008 Flickr user Peter from Wellington

Organic vs.
Mechanistic

5
(cc) 2008 Flickr user h.koppdelaney

Organic Worldview

6
First Nature

7
(cc) 2006 Flickr user Bruno Monginoux
Second Nature

(cc) 2007 Flickr user autan

8
The world is a
living world…
Ruach
Gaia
(cc) 2006 Flickr user Euthman

Unrestrained growth
is an aberration,

13
(cc) 2008 Flickr user Ralph Bijker

Mechanisti
c
14
The world is a
“dead” world…

15
(cc) 2006 Flickr user Caro Wallis
(cc) 2006 Flickr user Wolfgang Kopp

Lack of continuous
growth = death
16
(cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O

17
(cc) 2007 Flickr user Diodoro

The rise of
capitalism
Logical Positivism
Leads to the
Mechanistic
Worldview
Cogito Ergo Sum
Mechanistic
Philosophy
Logical Positivism
Is science
objective?
Economics?
The Liberal concept of agency is
based on the theory of

possessive individualism
Possessive Individualism
1. What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of
others.
2. Freedom from depend...
Liberal Philosophy
4
Four Elements of Liberal
Philosophy

Equality

Liberty

Individualit
Rationality
y
Four Elements of Liberal
Philosophy

Equality

Liberty

Individualit
Rationality
y
Equality of
Opportunity vs.
Equality of Outcome
Four Elements of Liberal
Philosophy

Equality

Liberty

Individualit
Rationality
y
Four Elements of Liberal
Philosophy

Equality

Liberty

Individualit
Rationality
y
Four Elements of Liberal
Philosophy

Equality

Liberty

Individualit
Rationality
y
Four Elements of Liberal
Philosophy

Equality

Liberty

Individualit
Rationality
y
Liberal Society
Feudalism
Capitalism
Why a free-market
economy is important…
The Pursuit of The Good
Liberal Politics
strict distinction between
the

state and civil
society
ambivalence about
the
benefits of democracy
Government is GREAT!

Government is BAD!
Utilitarianism
The Principle of

Utility Maximization
(cc) 2008 Flickr user gruntzooki

Government should

ameliorate the
effects

52
2
general conclusions
about government
(cc) 2007 Flickr user afroboof

Government should
leave people
alone.
54
Increase democratic
participation

55
(cc) 2008 Flickr user Edward DC
John Stuart Mill
Defend and Extend
individual liberty
58
(cc) 2008 Flickr user jukebox 909
Harm Principle
Every sane adult should be
free to do whatever he or
she wants as long as his
or her actions do not harm,
o...
Natural
Rights
Utility
Society, as a whole,
will benefit if people
are allowed to think
and act freely.
Representative
democracy only for the
educated, wealthy?
Neoclassical
liberalism
VS.
Welfare Liberalism
Negative VS.
Positive
Freedom
Neoclassical
liberalism
Social Darwinism
Welfare Liberalism
Government as a

POSITIVE
force
Socialism
VS.

Welfare
Liberalism
Option #1:
Money can be divided up such that
20% of us will get 82.7% of the
income and property, 20% will get
11.7% of in...
Option #2:
Divide it up such that everyone
gets an equal share of the wealth
and property, regardless of job or
status. (E...
(cc) 2008 Flickr user left-hand

The Veil of
Ignorance

79
(cc) 2008 Flickr user Tostie14

The Original Position

80
The Original Position
Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if
consensually held, would lead
everyone to accept the equal libe...
4 Ideas of

The Original
Position
Equal Respect

Non-Risky
Rationality

Mutual
Disinterestedness

The Veil of
Ignorance
83
Equal Respect

Non-Risky
Rationality

Mutual
Disinterestedness

The Veil of
Ignorance
84
Equal Respect

Non-Risky
Rationality

Mutual
Disinterestedness

The Veil of
Ignorance
85
Equal Respect

Non-Risky
Rationality

Mutual
Disinterestedness

The Veil of
Ignorance
86
Equal Respect

Non-Risky
Rationality

Mutual
Disinterestedness

The Veil of
Ignorance
87
Equal Respect

Non-Risky
Rationality

Mutual
Disinterestedness

The Veil of
Ignorance
88
2
Principles of Justice
Equal Liberty
Principle
The state must provide the
most extensive system of
equal liberties that is feasible
and desirable...
Difference Principle
Primary social goods are to
be distributed equally unless
an unequal distribution would
improve the w...
PROBLEMS
Liberal Economics
Laissez-faire
Capitalism and
Freedom
Keynesian Economics
The problem of
market failures and
inefficiencies
The many benefits of capitalism
are offset by certain problems:
• Complete market freedom results in
various types of mark...
The many benefits of capitalism
are offset by certain problems:
• Capitalism creates externalities
which harm the broader ...
2
Methods of Stimulating the
Economy
Reduce taxes
Increase
government
expenditures
“Priming the Pump”

+
The “Multiplier
Effect”
In case of an

overheated
economy…
Three ways to deal with
deficits:
• Grow your way out of it – as
incomes rise, taxes rise as people
move up through the ta...
Ayn
Rand
Objectivism
Principles of Objectivism
1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they
are, independent of anyone's beliefs, f...
Principles of Objectivism
1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they
are, independent of anyone's beliefs, f...
Principles of Objectivism
1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they
are, independent of anyone's beliefs, f...
Principles of Objectivism
1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they
are, independent of anyone's beliefs, f...
Principles of Objectivism
5. That the standard of the good is not God or the
alleged needs of society but rather "Man's li...
Principles of Objectivism
5. That the standard of the good is not God or the
alleged needs of society but rather "Man's li...
Principles of Objectivism
5. That the standard of the good is not God or the
alleged needs of society but rather "Man's li...
Principles of Objectivism
8. That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral
right to initiate the use of force agains...
Principles of Objectivism
8. That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral
right to initiate the use of force agains...
Principles of Objectivism
8. That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral
right to initiate the use of force agains...
Human Nature
124
125
The Social Contract
127
128
Liberalism as

Meta-Ideology
“The triumph of the West, of the
Western idea, is evident first of
all in the total exhaustion of
viable systematic altern...
liberalism is the

dominant ideology
not

un-ideological
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014
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Transcript of "PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2014"

  1. 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The American Political Spectrum is small …
  3. 3. (cc) 2005 Flickr user jurvetson The Western Transformation 1500-1700 4
  4. 4. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Peter from Wellington Organic vs. Mechanistic 5
  5. 5. (cc) 2008 Flickr user h.koppdelaney Organic Worldview 6
  6. 6. First Nature 7 (cc) 2006 Flickr user Bruno Monginoux
  7. 7. Second Nature (cc) 2007 Flickr user autan 8
  8. 8. The world is a living world…
  9. 9. Ruach
  10. 10. Gaia
  11. 11. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Euthman Unrestrained growth is an aberration, 13
  12. 12. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Ralph Bijker Mechanisti c 14
  13. 13. The world is a “dead” world… 15 (cc) 2006 Flickr user Caro Wallis
  14. 14. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Wolfgang Kopp Lack of continuous growth = death 16
  15. 15. (cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O 17
  16. 16. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Diodoro The rise of capitalism
  17. 17. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  18. 18. Cogito Ergo Sum
  19. 19. Mechanistic Philosophy
  20. 20. Logical Positivism
  21. 21. Is science objective? Economics?
  22. 22. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  23. 23. Possessive Individualism 1. What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. 2. Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. 3. The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society. 4. Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. 5. Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. 6. Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. 7. Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism)
  24. 24. Liberal Philosophy
  25. 25. 4
  26. 26. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individualit Rationality y
  27. 27. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individualit Rationality y
  28. 28. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  29. 29. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individualit Rationality y
  30. 30. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individualit Rationality y
  31. 31. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individualit Rationality y
  32. 32. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individualit Rationality y
  33. 33. Liberal Society
  34. 34. Feudalism Capitalism
  35. 35. Why a free-market economy is important…
  36. 36. The Pursuit of The Good
  37. 37. Liberal Politics
  38. 38. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  39. 39. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  40. 40. Government is GREAT! Government is BAD!
  41. 41. Utilitarianism
  42. 42. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  43. 43. (cc) 2008 Flickr user gruntzooki Government should ameliorate the effects 52
  44. 44. 2 general conclusions about government
  45. 45. (cc) 2007 Flickr user afroboof Government should leave people alone. 54
  46. 46. Increase democratic participation 55 (cc) 2008 Flickr user Edward DC
  47. 47. John Stuart Mill
  48. 48. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  49. 49. 58 (cc) 2008 Flickr user jukebox 909
  50. 50. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  51. 51. Natural Rights
  52. 52. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  53. 53. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  54. 54. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  55. 55. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  56. 56. Neoclassical liberalism
  57. 57. Social Darwinism
  58. 58. Welfare Liberalism
  59. 59. Government as a POSITIVE force
  60. 60. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  61. 61. Option #1: Money can be divided up such that 20% of us will get 82.7% of the income and property, 20% will get 11.7% of income and property, 20% will get 2.3% of income, 20% will get 1.9%, and the last 20% will get 1.4%.
  62. 62. Option #2: Divide it up such that everyone gets an equal share of the wealth and property, regardless of job or status. (Each group will get 20% of income, divided equally).
  63. 63. (cc) 2008 Flickr user left-hand The Veil of Ignorance 79
  64. 64. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Tostie14 The Original Position 80
  65. 65. The Original Position Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if consensually held, would lead everyone to accept the equal liberty and difference principles as the basis for mutually beneficial social cooperation.
  66. 66. 4 Ideas of The Original Position
  67. 67. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterestedness The Veil of Ignorance 83
  68. 68. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterestedness The Veil of Ignorance 84
  69. 69. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterestedness The Veil of Ignorance 85
  70. 70. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterestedness The Veil of Ignorance 86
  71. 71. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterestedness The Veil of Ignorance 87
  72. 72. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterestedness The Veil of Ignorance 88
  73. 73. 2 Principles of Justice
  74. 74. Equal Liberty Principle The state must provide the most extensive system of equal liberties that is feasible and desirable. All individuals must enjoy the greatest degree of liberty consistent with the enjoyment of like liberty by everyone else.
  75. 75. Difference Principle Primary social goods are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution would improve the welfare of the least well-off in society.
  76. 76. PROBLEMS
  77. 77. Liberal Economics
  78. 78. Laissez-faire Capitalism and Freedom
  79. 79. Keynesian Economics
  80. 80. The problem of market failures and inefficiencies
  81. 81. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. • Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. • Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity.
  82. 82. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. • Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. • Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone.
  83. 83. 2 Methods of Stimulating the Economy
  84. 84. Reduce taxes
  85. 85. Increase government expenditures
  86. 86. “Priming the Pump” + The “Multiplier Effect”
  87. 87. In case of an overheated economy…
  88. 88. Three ways to deal with deficits: • Grow your way out of it – as incomes rise, taxes rise as people move up through the tax brackets. • Increase income taxes on the wealthy, create luxury taxes, etc. • Reduce government spending in specific areas where it is no longer needed.
  89. 89. Ayn Rand
  90. 90. Objectivism
  91. 91. Principles of Objectivism 1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; 2. That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; 3. That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; 4. That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality;
  92. 92. Principles of Objectivism 1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; 2. That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; 3. That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; 4. That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality;
  93. 93. Principles of Objectivism 1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; 2. That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; 3. That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; 4. That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality;
  94. 94. Principles of Objectivism 1. That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; 2. That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; 3. That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; 4. That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality;
  95. 95. Principles of Objectivism 5. That the standard of the good is not God or the alleged needs of society but rather "Man's life," that which is objectively required for man's or woman's life, survival, and well-being; 6. That a human being is an end in him- or herself, that each one of us has the right to exist for our own sake, neither sacrificing others to self nor self to others; 7. That the principles of justice and respect for individuality autonomy, and personal rights must replace the principle of sacrifice in human relationships;
  96. 96. Principles of Objectivism 5. That the standard of the good is not God or the alleged needs of society but rather "Man's life," that which is objectively required for man's or woman's life, survival, and well-being; 6. That a human being is an end in him- or herself, that each one of us has the right to exist for our own sake, neither sacrificing others to self nor self to others; 7. That the principles of justice and respect for individuality autonomy, and personal rights must replace the principle of sacrifice in human relationships;
  97. 97. Principles of Objectivism 5. That the standard of the good is not God or the alleged needs of society but rather "Man's life," that which is objectively required for man's or woman's life, survival, and well-being; 6. That a human being is an end in him- or herself, that each one of us has the right to exist for our own sake, neither sacrificing others to self nor self to others; 7. That the principles of justice and respect for individuality autonomy, and personal rights must replace the principle of sacrifice in human relationships;
  98. 98. Principles of Objectivism 8. That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral right to initiate the use of force against others; 9. That force is permissible only in retaliation and only against those who have initiated its use; 10.That the organizing principle of a moral society is respect for individual rights and that the sole appropriate function of government is to act as guardian and protector of individual rights.
  99. 99. Principles of Objectivism 8. That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral right to initiate the use of force against others; 9. That force is permissible only in retaliation and only against those who have initiated its use; 10.That the organizing principle of a moral society is respect for individual rights and that the sole appropriate function of government is to act as guardian and protector of individual rights.
  100. 100. Principles of Objectivism 8. That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral right to initiate the use of force against others; 9. That force is permissible only in retaliation and only against those who have initiated its use; 10.That the organizing principle of a moral society is respect for individual rights and that the sole appropriate function of government is to act as guardian and protector of individual rights.
  101. 101. Human Nature
  102. 102. 124
  103. 103. 125
  104. 104. The Social Contract
  105. 105. 127
  106. 106. 128
  107. 107. Liberalism as Meta-Ideology
  108. 108. “The triumph of the West, of the Western idea, is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.” Francis Fukuyama, The End of History
  109. 109. liberalism is the dominant ideology not un-ideological

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