Liberalism
Dr. Christopher S. Rice
The American Political
  Spectrum is small…
(cc) 2005 Flickr user jurvetson




The Western Transformation
                                  1500-1700
(cc) 2008 Flickr user Peter from Wellington




          Organic vs. Mechanistic
(cc) 2008 Flickr user h.koppdelaney




Organic Worldview
First Nature




               (cc) 2006 Flickr user Bruno Monginoux
(cc) 2007 Flickr user autan




Second Nature
The world is a living
     world…
Ruach
Gaia
(cc) 2006 Flickr user Euthman




Unrestrained growth is
an aberration, undesired
(cc) 2008 Flickr user Ralph Bijker




Mechanistic
Worldview
The world is a
“dead” world…




          (cc) 2006 Flickr user Caro Wallis
(cc) 2006 Flickr user Wolfgang Kopp




         Lack of continuous
           growth = death
(cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O
(cc) 2007 Flickr user Diodoro




The rise of capitalism
Logical Positivism
    Leads to the
Mechanistic Worldview
Cogito Ergo Sum
Mechanistic
Philosophy
Logical Positivism
Is science objective?
     Economics?
Human Nature
The Liberal concept of agency is
    based on the theory of
possessive individualism
Possessive Individualism
1. What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of
   others.
2. Freedom from dep...
Liberal Philosophy
4
Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy


     Equality        Liberty



  Individuality Rationality
Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy


     Equality        Liberty



  Individuality Rationality
Equality of Opportunity
           vs.
 Equality of Outcome
Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy


     Equality        Liberty



  Individuality Rationality
Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy


     Equality        Liberty



  Individuality Rationality
Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy


     Equality        Liberty



  Individuality Rationality
Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy


     Equality        Liberty



  Individuality Rationality
Liberal Society
Feudalism   Capitalism
Why a free-market
economy is important…
The Pursuit of The Good
Liberal Politics
strict distinction between the
 state and civil society
The Social Contract
ambivalence about the
benefits of democracy
Government is GREAT!




                   Government is BAD!
Utilitarianism
The Principle of
Utility Maximization
(cc) 2008 Flickr user gruntzooki




    Government should
ameliorate the effects
   of utility maximization
2
general conclusions
 about government
(cc) 2007 Flickr user afroboof




 Government should
leave people alone.
Increase democratic
    participation




                 (cc) 2008 Flickr user Edward DC
Defend and Extend
 individual liberty
(cc) 2008 Flickr user jukebox 909
Harm Principle
 Every sane adult should be
free to do whatever he or she
  wants as long as his or her
    actions do not ...
Natural Rights
Utility
Society, as a whole, will
  benefit if people are
allowed to think and act
         freely.
Representative democracy
  only for the educated,
         wealthy?
Neoclassical liberalism
         VS.
  Welfare Liberalism
The Liberal View of Freedom
          (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”)

                     OBSTACLE:
                    ...
Negative VS. Positive
      Freedom
Neoclassical liberalism
Social Darwinism
Welfare Liberalism
Government as a
 POSITIVE
     force
Socialism
       VS.
Welfare Liberalism
(cc) 2008 Flickr user left-hand




The Veil of
Ignorance
(cc) 2008 Flickr user Tostie14




The Original Position
The Original Position
 Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if
   consensually held, would lead
everyone to accept the equal ...
4 Ideas of
The Original Position
Non-Risky
Equal Respect
                 Rationality
         4 Ideas of
The Original Position
    Mutual
                ...
Non-Risky
Equal Respect
                 Rationality
         4 Ideas of
The Original Position
    Mutual
                ...
Non-Risky
Equal Respect
                 Rationality
         4 Ideas of
The Original Position
    Mutual
                ...
Non-Risky
Equal Respect
                 Rationality
         4 Ideas of
The Original Position
    Mutual
                ...
Non-Risky
Equal Respect
                 Rationality
         4 Ideas of
The Original Position
    Mutual
                ...
Non-Risky
Equal Respect
                 Rationality
         4 Ideas of
The Original Position
    Mutual
                ...
2
Principles of Justice
Equal Liberty Principle
The state must provide the most
   extensive system of equal
  liberties that is feasible and
 des...
Difference Principle
 Primary social goods are to be
  distributed equally unless an
   unequal distribution would
improve...
PROBLEMS
Liberal Economics
Laissez-faire Capitalism
     and Freedom
Keynesian Economics
The problem of
market failures and
  inefficiencies
The many benefits of capitalism
   are offset by certain problems:
• Complete market freedom results in
  various types of ...
The many benefits of capitalism
   are offset by certain problems:
• Capitalism creates externalities
  which harm the broa...
2
Methods of Stimulating the
       Economy
Reduce taxes
Increase
government
expenditures
“Priming the Pump”
          +
The “Multiplier Effect”
In case of an
overheated
economy…
Three ways to deal with deficits:
• Grow your way out of it – as
  incomes rise, taxes rise as people
  move up through the...
Liberalism as
Meta-Ideology
“The triumph of the West, of the
Western idea, is evident first of all
in the total exhaustion of viable
systematic alterna...
liberalism is the
dominant ideology
         not
 un-ideological
2
domination of society by
 increasingly large and
 powerful corporations
increased functional
   differentiation
?
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
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PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009

  1. 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The American Political Spectrum is small…
  3. 3. (cc) 2005 Flickr user jurvetson The Western Transformation 1500-1700
  4. 4. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Peter from Wellington Organic vs. Mechanistic
  5. 5. (cc) 2008 Flickr user h.koppdelaney Organic Worldview
  6. 6. First Nature (cc) 2006 Flickr user Bruno Monginoux
  7. 7. (cc) 2007 Flickr user autan Second Nature
  8. 8. The world is a living world…
  9. 9. Ruach
  10. 10. Gaia
  11. 11. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Euthman Unrestrained growth is an aberration, undesired
  12. 12. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Ralph Bijker Mechanistic Worldview
  13. 13. The world is a “dead” world… (cc) 2006 Flickr user Caro Wallis
  14. 14. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Wolfgang Kopp Lack of continuous growth = death
  15. 15. (cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O
  16. 16. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Diodoro The rise of capitalism
  17. 17. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  18. 18. Cogito Ergo Sum
  19. 19. Mechanistic Philosophy
  20. 20. Logical Positivism
  21. 21. Is science objective? Economics?
  22. 22. Human Nature
  23. 23. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  24. 24. Possessive Individualism 1. What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. 2. Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. 3. The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society. 4. Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. 5. Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. 6. Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. 7. Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism)
  25. 25. Liberal Philosophy
  26. 26. 4
  27. 27. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  28. 28. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  29. 29. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  30. 30. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  31. 31. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  32. 32. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  33. 33. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  34. 34. Liberal Society
  35. 35. Feudalism Capitalism
  36. 36. Why a free-market economy is important…
  37. 37. The Pursuit of The Good
  38. 38. Liberal Politics
  39. 39. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  40. 40. The Social Contract
  41. 41. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  42. 42. Government is GREAT! Government is BAD!
  43. 43. Utilitarianism
  44. 44. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  45. 45. (cc) 2008 Flickr user gruntzooki Government should ameliorate the effects of utility maximization
  46. 46. 2 general conclusions about government
  47. 47. (cc) 2007 Flickr user afroboof Government should leave people alone.
  48. 48. Increase democratic participation (cc) 2008 Flickr user Edward DC
  49. 49. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  50. 50. (cc) 2008 Flickr user jukebox 909
  51. 51. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  52. 52. Natural Rights
  53. 53. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  54. 54. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  55. 55. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  56. 56. The Liberal View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”) OBSTACLE: Laws, customs, or conditions that block individual choice (or pursuit of “the good”) AGENT: GOAL: The To live as one chooses, “Atomistic” pursue one’s Individual own idea of “the good.”
  57. 57. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  58. 58. Neoclassical liberalism
  59. 59. Social Darwinism
  60. 60. Welfare Liberalism
  61. 61. Government as a POSITIVE force
  62. 62. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  63. 63. (cc) 2008 Flickr user left-hand The Veil of Ignorance
  64. 64. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Tostie14 The Original Position
  65. 65. The Original Position Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if consensually held, would lead everyone to accept the equal liberty and difference principles as the basis for mutually beneficial social cooperation.
  66. 66. 4 Ideas of The Original Position
  67. 67. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  68. 68. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  69. 69. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  70. 70. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  71. 71. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  72. 72. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  73. 73. 2 Principles of Justice
  74. 74. Equal Liberty Principle The state must provide the most extensive system of equal liberties that is feasible and desirable. All individuals must enjoy the greatest degree of liberty consistent with the enjoyment of like liberty by everyone else.
  75. 75. Difference Principle Primary social goods are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution would improve the welfare of the least well-off in society.
  76. 76. PROBLEMS
  77. 77. Liberal Economics
  78. 78. Laissez-faire Capitalism and Freedom
  79. 79. Keynesian Economics
  80. 80. The problem of market failures and inefficiencies
  81. 81. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. • Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. • Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity.
  82. 82. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. • Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. • Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone.
  83. 83. 2 Methods of Stimulating the Economy
  84. 84. Reduce taxes
  85. 85. Increase government expenditures
  86. 86. “Priming the Pump” + The “Multiplier Effect”
  87. 87. In case of an overheated economy…
  88. 88. Three ways to deal with deficits: • Grow your way out of it – as incomes rise, taxes rise as people move up through the tax brackets. • Increase income taxes on the wealthy, create luxury taxes, etc. • Reduce government spending in specific areas where it is no longer needed.
  89. 89. Liberalism as Meta-Ideology
  90. 90. “The triumph of the West, of the Western idea, is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.” Francis Fukuyama, The End of History
  91. 91. liberalism is the dominant ideology not un-ideological
  92. 92. 2
  93. 93. domination of society by increasingly large and powerful corporations
  94. 94. increased functional differentiation
  95. 95. ?

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