Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

PS 240 Liberalism Spring 2009

923

Published on

Published in: Economy & Finance, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
923
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  • 2. The American Political Spectrum is small…
  • 3. (cc) 2005 Flickr user jurvetson The Western Transformation 1500-1700
  • 4. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Peter from Wellington Organic vs. Mechanistic
  • 5. (cc) 2008 Flickr user h.koppdelaney Organic Worldview
  • 6. First Nature (cc) 2006 Flickr user Bruno Monginoux
  • 7. (cc) 2007 Flickr user autan Second Nature
  • 8. The world is a living world…
  • 9. Ruach
  • 10. Gaia
  • 11. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Euthman Unrestrained growth is an aberration, undesired
  • 12. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Ralph Bijker Mechanistic Worldview
  • 13. The world is a “dead” world… (cc) 2006 Flickr user Caro Wallis
  • 14. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Wolfgang Kopp Lack of continuous growth = death
  • 15. (cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O
  • 16. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Diodoro The rise of capitalism
  • 17. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  • 18. Cogito Ergo Sum
  • 19. Mechanistic Philosophy
  • 20. Logical Positivism
  • 21. Is science objective? Economics?
  • 22. Human Nature
  • 23. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  • 24. Possessive Individualism 1. What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. 2. Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. 3. The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society. 4. Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. 5. Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. 6. Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. 7. Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism)
  • 25. Liberal Philosophy
  • 26. 4
  • 27. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  • 28. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  • 29. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  • 30. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  • 31. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  • 32. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  • 33. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  • 34. Liberal Society
  • 35. Feudalism Capitalism
  • 36. Why a free-market economy is important…
  • 37. The Pursuit of The Good
  • 38. Liberal Politics
  • 39. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  • 40. The Social Contract
  • 41. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  • 42. Government is GREAT! Government is BAD!
  • 43. Utilitarianism
  • 44. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  • 45. (cc) 2008 Flickr user gruntzooki Government should ameliorate the effects of utility maximization
  • 46. 2 general conclusions about government
  • 47. (cc) 2007 Flickr user afroboof Government should leave people alone.
  • 48. Increase democratic participation (cc) 2008 Flickr user Edward DC
  • 49. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  • 50. (cc) 2008 Flickr user jukebox 909
  • 51. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  • 52. Natural Rights
  • 53. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  • 54. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  • 55. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  • 56. The Liberal View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”) OBSTACLE: Laws, customs, or conditions that block individual choice (or pursuit of “the good”) AGENT: GOAL: The To live as one chooses, “Atomistic” pursue one’s Individual own idea of “the good.”
  • 57. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  • 58. Neoclassical liberalism
  • 59. Social Darwinism
  • 60. Welfare Liberalism
  • 61. Government as a POSITIVE force
  • 62. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  • 63. (cc) 2008 Flickr user left-hand The Veil of Ignorance
  • 64. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Tostie14 The Original Position
  • 65. The Original Position Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if consensually held, would lead everyone to accept the equal liberty and difference principles as the basis for mutually beneficial social cooperation.
  • 66. 4 Ideas of The Original Position
  • 67. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  • 68. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  • 69. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  • 70. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  • 71. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  • 72. Non-Risky Equal Respect Rationality 4 Ideas of The Original Position Mutual The Veil of Disinterested- Ignorance ness
  • 73. 2 Principles of Justice
  • 74. Equal Liberty Principle The state must provide the most extensive system of equal liberties that is feasible and desirable. All individuals must enjoy the greatest degree of liberty consistent with the enjoyment of like liberty by everyone else.
  • 75. Difference Principle Primary social goods are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution would improve the welfare of the least well-off in society.
  • 76. PROBLEMS
  • 77. Liberal Economics
  • 78. Laissez-faire Capitalism and Freedom
  • 79. Keynesian Economics
  • 80. The problem of market failures and inefficiencies
  • 81. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. • Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. • Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity.
  • 82. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. • Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. • Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone.
  • 83. 2 Methods of Stimulating the Economy
  • 84. Reduce taxes
  • 85. Increase government expenditures
  • 86. “Priming the Pump” + The “Multiplier Effect”
  • 87. In case of an overheated economy…
  • 88. Three ways to deal with deficits: • Grow your way out of it – as incomes rise, taxes rise as people move up through the tax brackets. • Increase income taxes on the wealthy, create luxury taxes, etc. • Reduce government spending in specific areas where it is no longer needed.
  • 89. Liberalism as Meta-Ideology
  • 90. “The triumph of the West, of the Western idea, is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.” Francis Fukuyama, The End of History
  • 91. liberalism is the dominant ideology not un-ideological
  • 92. 2
  • 93. domination of society by increasingly large and powerful corporations
  • 94. increased functional differentiation
  • 95. ?

×