PS 240 Fascism Spring 2009

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PS 240 Fascism Spring 2009

  1. 1. Fascism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Totalitarian + Reactionary
  3. 3. Totalitarianism the complete control of society – government, social, economic, cultural institutions – in order to fulfill an ideological vision of how society should be organized and how life should be lived.
  4. 4. Gleichschaltung
  5. 5. Reactionary
  6. 6. Fascism is “a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values…from beneath the ruins of liberal, socialist, and democratic doctrines, Fascism extracts those elements which are still vital… supercede[s] socialism and supercede[s] liberalism…creates a new synthesis… Man is integral, he is political, he is economic, he is religious, he is saint, he is warrior.” - Benito Mussolini
  7. 7. A Syncretic Ideology
  8. 8. Concerns on the Right
  9. 9. Concerns on the Left
  10. 10. Corporatism
  11. 11. Defining Fascism
  12. 12. nationalism + conservatism = Fascism
  13. 13. nationalism + socialism = Fascism
  14. 14. Fascism an ideology which strives to forge social rebirth based on a holistic- national radical Third Way, though in practice it has tended to stress style, especially action and the charismatic leader, more than detailed program, and a demonization of its enemies.
  15. 15. Goin’ Fishin…
  16. 16. Nationalism
  17. 17. Volkish movement
  18. 18. Anti-Enlightenment/anti-positivism
  19. 19. Psychology Philosophy Sociology
  20. 20. Superpatriotism the tendency to place nationalistic pride and supremacy above every other public consideration, the readiness to follow our leaders uncritically in their dealings with other nations, especially confrontations involving the use of military force and violence.
  21. 21. FEAR!
  22. 22. “The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.” - Hermann Goering
  23. 23. “In order to bring a nation to support the burdens of maintaining great military establishments, it is necessary to create an emotional state akin to war psychology. There must be the portrayal of external menace.” - John Foster Dulles
  24. 24. The Cold War The Long War
  25. 25. Human Nature
  26. 26. We are defined by our differences…
  27. 27. Freedom
  28. 28. Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.
  29. 29. Believe, Obey, Fight!
  30. 30. The Fascist View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Fascism”) OBSTACLE: Individualism, Independent Groups, Class Divisions AGENT: GOAL: The The power Nation-State and glory of the state
  31. 31. The Leader
  32. 32. 3 Elements of Fascist Elitism • Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. • Power is centralized and unlimited, rather than divided and checked. • Rulers derive superior knowledge about the national interest from their own intuitions, rather than deriving goals and programs by consulting the people.
  33. 33. 3 Elements of Fascist Elitism • Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. • Power is centralized and unlimited, rather than divided and checked. • Rulers derive superior knowledge about the national interest from their own intuitions, rather than deriving goals and programs by consulting the people.
  34. 34. Fuehrerprinzip
  35. 35. 3 Elements of Fascist Elitism • Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. • Power is centralized and unlimited, rather than divided and checked. • Rulers derive superior knowledge about the national interest from their own intuitions, rather than deriving goals and programs by consulting the people.
  36. 36. Insistence on “belief”
  37. 37. The Herd
  38. 38. Cult of Personality
  39. 39. Nazism
  40. 40. Similarities to Fascism
  41. 41. Fascism + Racism = Nazism
  42. 42. volksgemeinschaft
  43. 43. The Nazi View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Fascism”) OBSTACLE: “Inferior” races, Humanitarian Ideas, Class Divisions AGENT: GOAL: Racial Aryan Race, Supremacy, Volksgemeinsc haft “Thousand- Year Reich”
  44. 44. Britt’s Study of Fascism • Adolph Hitler’s Nazi Germany • Benito Mussolini’s Italy • Francisco Franco's Spain • Antonio De Oliveiro Salazar's Portugal • George Papadopolous's Greece • Agosto Pinochet's Chile • Mohamed Suharto's Indonesia
  45. 45. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism 1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism 2. Disdain for Human Rights 3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause 4. Supremacy of the Military 5. Rampant Sexism 6. Controlled Mass Media 7. Obsession With National Security 8. Religion and Government Intertwined 9. Corporate Power Protected 10. Labor Power Suppressed 11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts 12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment 13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption 14. Fraudulent Elections

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