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PS 101 The Congress Summer 2008
 

PS 101 The Congress Summer 2008

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    PS 101 The Congress Summer 2008 PS 101 The Congress Summer 2008 Presentation Transcript

    • The Congress Dr. Christopher S. Rice
    • The First Congress
    • Federal Hall, NYC
    • # of Members 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
    • 435 # of Members 100 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
    • 1912 > 435 # of Members 100 65 26 SENATE HOUSE
    • PROBLEM: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails?
    • Volume of Business # of Responsibilities
    • Volume of Business # of Responsibilities
    • (cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
    • (cc) 2007 Flickr user Lance Johnson
    • (cc) 2008 Flickr User charsplat
    • (cc) 2007 Flickr user Joe Lanman
    • Congress has become more institutionalized
    • Congress has become more professionalized
    • Who is Congress, Anyway?
    • 80% (cc) Flickr user vidrio
    • The American People CONGRESS
    • (cc) 2006 flickr user mahalie
    • The numbers in the 110th Congress: HOUSE SENATE African- 42 1 Americans Jews 30 13 Hispanics 27 3 Asian- 3 2 Americans Arab- 0 1 Americans Native 1 0 Americans Women 74 16
    • SENATE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
    • Does CLASS matter?
    • Thinking About Representation: The Senate
    • 2
    • 100
    • Ratios and Inequities: Small vs. Large States
    • 17%
    • 135?
    • 10 - 2 15 - 1 25 - 0
    • A Senator for D.C.?
    • National Senators?
    • 10
    • Electoral Districts: The House of Representatives
    • 435
    • 1000?
    • Reapportionment The number of seats in the House of Representatives allotted to a state changes every 10 years based on changes in population determined by the Census.
    • The Power and Influence of State Legislatures
    • Sushicircus © 2006 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sushicircus/292399888/
    • Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) Supreme Court ruled principle of “one person, one vote” applied to congressional districts.
    • RESULT: congressional districts all now approximately the same size.
    • The Problem of “Mid-Decade” Redistricting
    • Gerrymandering When district boundary lines are drawn to ensure the election of a particular party, group or person.
    • Racial gerrymandering & “Majority Minority” districts
    • Incumbency
    • Today’s U.S. Congress is considered the world’s foremost example of a “professional legislature.”
    • R-E-S-P-E-C-T
    • Fenno’s Paradox Citizens invariably rate their members of Congress far more favorably than they rate the Congress as a whole.
    • Advantages of Incumbency
    • (cc) 2007 Flickr user smenzel Franking Privilege
    • Travel Budget (cc) 2006 Flickr user John Wardell (Netinho)
    • +
    • Constituent Service
    • The problem of “Safe Incumbency”
    • (cc) 2007 Flickr user abbamouse Competitive vs. Noncompetitive Districts (cc) 2007 flickr user tiswango
    • Negative Effects of “Safe Incumbency” on Democracy
    • How a Bill Becomes a Law
    • How a Bill Becomes a Law • Types of Legislation • Introducing a Bill • Committee Action • Floor Action • Conference Committee • Presidential Action
    • Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
    • Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
    • Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
    • Types of Legislation • Bill – Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. • Joint Resolution – Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. • Concurrent Resolution – Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. • Resolution – Designated H. Res. Or S. Res.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) • Sponsor: lawmaker who introduces a bill. • Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. • Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
    • Introducing a bill • Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: – House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper. – Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer (first reading). • After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above.
    • Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
    • Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
    • Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
    • Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
    • Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
    • Committee Action • After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. • Most bills die at this stage. Why? • Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. – Hearings – Markup – Subcommittee reports to the full committee.
    • Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
    • Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
    • Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
    • Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
    • Committee Action • Final Committee Action • But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? – In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. – Discharge Petition – Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill.
    • Committee Action • SO, bills can be brought to floor despite committee rejection, but this is EXTREMELY rare.
    • Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
    • Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
    • Floor Action • After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. • Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. – Unrestricted debate and the Senate. – Filibuster – Cloture
    • Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
    • Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
    • Floor Action •House – process much more complex due to size. – Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. – suspension of the rules.
    • Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
    • Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
    • Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
    • Floor Action • Suspension of the Rules – Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. – If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. – Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. – Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act.
    • Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
    • Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
    • Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
    • Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
    • Floor Action • Rules Committee – Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. – Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. – It determines: •If and/or when it should be sent to the floor •If and/or how long debate is allowed •Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule)
    • Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
    • Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
    • Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
    • Floor Action • Open vs. Closed Rule – Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. – Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. • Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule.
    • Floor Action • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
    • Floor Action • If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. • After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill.
    • Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
    • Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
    • Conference Committee • Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. • Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. • Negotiation – theory and practice.
    • Presidential Action • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
    • Presidential Action • For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. • If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration.
    • Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
    • Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
    • Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
    • Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.
    • Presidential Action • There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: – Sign the bill and it becomes law. – Veto the bill and return it to Congress. – Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. – Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature.