PS 101 The Bureaucracy Fall 2009

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PS 101 The Bureaucracy Fall 2009

  1. 1. The Bureaucracy Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Bureaucracy A large organization in which people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarchy of bureaus and offices, each of which has a specified mission.
  3. 3. Bureaucracy Public agencies that translate the intent of democratic institutions into action.
  4. 4. Advantages?
  5. 5. 2
  6. 6. Ability to organize large tasks
  7. 7. Concentration of specialized talent
  8. 8. Disadvantages?
  9. 9. Efficiency vs. Responsiveness
  10. 10. The Merit System • Spoils System dominated the 19th and (most of the) 20th century bureaucracy. – “It’s not what you know, but who you know…” • Merit System: people hired & promoted on basis of qualifications & job performance, not political connections.
  11. 11. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Execution of laws • Rule-Making (Regulation) – Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. – Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law.
  12. 12. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Execution of laws • Rule-Making (Regulation) – Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. – Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law.
  13. 13. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Execution of laws • Rule-Making (Regulation) – Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. – Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law.
  14. 14. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Rule-Making (cont’d.) – Federal Administrative Procedures Act – Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. – Interest group participation
  15. 15. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Rule-Making (cont’d.) – Federal Administrative Procedures Act – Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. – Interest group participation
  16. 16. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Rule-Making (cont’d.) – Federal Administrative Procedures Act – Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. – Interest group participation
  17. 17. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  18. 18. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  19. 19. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  20. 20. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  21. 21. Structure of the Executive Branch
  22. 22. Executive Office of the President (EOP)
  23. 23. Cabinet Departments
  24. 24. Bureaus and Agencies
  25. 25. Government Corporations
  26. 26. Independent Executive Agencies
  27. 27. Independent Regulatory Commissions
  28. 28. #1: Get Congress to “buy in” to the process.
  29. 29. #2: Establish a small number of “bottleneck breakers” in the EOP.

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