PS 101 The Bureaucracy Fall 2009

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  • 1. The Bureaucracy Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  • 2. Bureaucracy A large organization in which people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarchy of bureaus and offices, each of which has a specified mission.
  • 3. Bureaucracy Public agencies that translate the intent of democratic institutions into action.
  • 4. Advantages?
  • 5. 2
  • 6. Ability to organize large tasks
  • 7. Concentration of specialized talent
  • 8. Disadvantages?
  • 9. Efficiency vs. Responsiveness
  • 10. The Merit System • Spoils System dominated the 19th and (most of the) 20th century bureaucracy. – “It’s not what you know, but who you know…” • Merit System: people hired & promoted on basis of qualifications & job performance, not political connections.
  • 11. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Execution of laws • Rule-Making (Regulation) – Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. – Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law.
  • 12. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Execution of laws • Rule-Making (Regulation) – Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. – Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law.
  • 13. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Execution of laws • Rule-Making (Regulation) – Rulemaking – the process of deciding exactly what the laws passed by Congress mean. – Rule – statement by a federal agency that interprets a law and prescribes the specific action an agency will take to implement that law.
  • 14. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Rule-Making (cont’d.) – Federal Administrative Procedures Act – Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. – Interest group participation
  • 15. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Rule-Making (cont’d.) – Federal Administrative Procedures Act – Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. – Interest group participation
  • 16. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Rule-Making (cont’d.) – Federal Administrative Procedures Act – Certain minimum standards must be met when making rules. – Interest group participation
  • 17. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  • 18. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  • 19. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  • 20. So what do bureaucrats do, exactly? • Adjudication – process designed to establish whether a rule has been violated. – In making rules, bureaucracies act like legislatures; in judging them they act like courts. – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) – Potential problems with bureaucrats as policymakers…
  • 21. Structure of the Executive Branch
  • 22. Executive Office of the President (EOP)
  • 23. Cabinet Departments
  • 24. Bureaus and Agencies
  • 25. Government Corporations
  • 26. Independent Executive Agencies
  • 27. Independent Regulatory Commissions
  • 28. #1: Get Congress to “buy in” to the process.
  • 29. #2: Establish a small number of “bottleneck breakers” in the EOP.