PS 101 interest groups fall 2013

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PS 101 interest groups fall 2013

  1. 1. Interest Groups Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Interest Groups Organizations that try to shape public policy by influencing the behavior of political decision-makers.
  3. 3. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Flyover Living Interest groups are important instruments to attain democracy and serve the public interest
  4. 4. 3 Types of Interest Groups
  5. 5. Public Interest Groups (citizen groups)
  6. 6. (cc) 2007 Flickr user williamhartz Interests that are connected to the general welfare of the community
  7. 7. Non-Economic Groups motivated by:
  8. 8. Non-Economic Groups motivated by: Ideology
  9. 9. Non-Economic Groups motivated by: Ideology Desire to advance a cause
  10. 10. Non-Economic Groups motivated by: Ideology Desire to advance a cause Commitment to a particular public policy
  11. 11. Attract members using solidaristic or purposive incentives
  12. 12. Number of public interest groups has increased markedly since the 1960’s
  13. 13. Private Interest Groups (economic groups)
  14. 14. Groups with some tangible stake that they wish to protect or to advance by means of government action
  15. 15. Associated with providing benefits for a fraction of the community
  16. 16. Primarily based on selective benefits
  17. 17. 3
  18. 18. Producer Groups represent enterprises that produce goods or services, such as businesses or agriculture
  19. 19. Professional Groups represent the interests of professionals, such as doctors, lawyers, and dentists.
  20. 20. Unions protect jobs of members, work for maximum wage & benefit levels.
  21. 21. “Gray Area” Interest Groups
  22. 22. Governments “Gray Area” Interest Groups
  23. 23. Governments “Gray Area” Interest Groups Think Tanks
  24. 24. Think Tanks Governments “Gray Area” Interest Groups Issue Networks and Alliances
  25. 25. Think Tanks Governments “Gray Area” Interest Groups Astroturf Groups Issue Networks and Alliances
  26. 26. What Interest Groups Do
  27. 27. What Interest Groups Do the “inside” and “outside” games
  28. 28. The Inside Game Direct contact of interest group representative and government officials
  29. 29. One-on-one Persuasion (cc) 2005 Flickr user Spamily
  30. 30. Requires an understanding of the “rules of the game” (cc) 2006 Flickr user romainguy
  31. 31. The inside game is most effective when the issues:
  32. 32. The inside game is most effective when the issues: are narrow and technical;
  33. 33. The inside game is most effective when the issues: are narrow and technical; do not command much media or public attention;
  34. 34. The inside game is most effective when the issues: are narrow and technical; do not command much media or public attention; do not stir up counteractivity by other interest groups.
  35. 35. Inside Game Lobbying Congress
  36. 36. (cc) 2007 Flickr user ethorson
  37. 37. (cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O The Importance of Campaign Contributions
  38. 38. Provide Testimony at Public Hearings of Committees & Subcommittees (cc) 2008 flickr user Robert Whitlock
  39. 39. The “Lobbyist’s Loop of Deceit” (c) 2008 Valdis/NetworkWeaving.com
  40. 40. Inside Game Lobbying Executive Branch
  41. 41. (cc) 2007 Flickr user ethorson
  42. 42. Helping the Bureaucracy
  43. 43. The Revolving Door?
  44. 44. The Outside Game Efforts to mobilize public opinion, voters, and important contributors in order to bring pressure on elected officials
  45. 45. Tools of the Outside Game
  46. 46. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership
  47. 47. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District
  48. 48. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District • Shaping Opinion
  49. 49. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District • Shaping Opinion – Publication of Research results
  50. 50. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District • Shaping Opinion – Publication of Research results – Advertising
  51. 51. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District • Shaping Opinion – Publication of Research results – Advertising – Maintaining working relationships with the media
  52. 52. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District • Shaping Opinion – Publication of Research results – Advertising – Maintaining working relationships with the media – Political Action Committees
  53. 53. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District • Shaping Opinion – Publication of Research results – Advertising – Maintaining working relationships with the media – Political Action Committees – Blogging and Web 2.0 activism
  54. 54. Interest Group System & Democracy
  55. 55. 3 Inequalities in the Interest Group System
  56. 56. Representational Inequalities involves the question of WHOM interest groups represent
  57. 57. 2/3
  58. 58. Representational advantage of business, professions increasing
  59. 59. Representational advantage of business, professions increasing
  60. 60. Business & Professional Groups have more permanency (cc) 2007 Flickr user Rob Ball
  61. 61. Resource Inequalities interest groups representing business corporations and the professions represent a substantial resource advantage over others
  62. 62. (cc) 2006 Flickr user thejedi
  63. 63. Lobbying Expenditures 1998-2013 627,051,945* 572,187,887* 408,291,198* 1,646,493,793* 1,731,838,477* 5,786,944,314* 1,891,094,434* Business*(Misc)* Health* Finance/Insurance/Real*Estate* CommunicaEons/Electronics* Energy/Natural*Resources* 2,941,323,494* 5,742,152,457* Other* TransportaEon* Ideology/Single*Issue* 3,067,295,206* Agribusiness* Defense* 5,728,530,469* 4,256,934,625* ConstrucEon* Labor* Lawyers*&*Lobbyists* 4,683,959,834* Source: Center for Responsive Politics
  64. 64. ROI
  65. 65. Do interest groups neutralize each other?
  66. 66. Access inequality inequalities of representation and resources are accentuated by the ability of some groups to form relatively stable alliances with government institutions and decision-makers
  67. 67. Interest Group Liberalism political system in which interest groups help formulate and carry out government policies
  68. 68. Capture tendency for regulatory agencies to become allies, protectors, & advocates of the industries that they were intended to regulate
  69. 69. Iron Triangles A three-way arrangement in which an alliance is formed between a private interest group, a bureaucratic agency, and a Congressional committee or subcommittee.

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