Interest Groups
 Dr. Christopher S. Rice
Interest Groups
  Organizations that try to
   shape public policy by
influencing the behavior of
 political decision-make...
Interest groups are
                                                   important
                                       in...
3
Types of Interest Groups
Public Interest Groups
    (citizen groups)
(cc) 2007 Flickr user williamhartz




Interests that are connected to the
general welfare of the community
Non-Economic Groups
     motivated by:
        Ideology

Desire to advance a cause

   Commitment to a
 particular public ...
Attract members using
solidaristic or purposive
       incentives
Number of public interest
groups has increased markedly
       since the 1960’s
Private Interest Groups
  (economic groups)
Groups with some tangible
stake that they wish to
protect or to advance by
means of government
action
Associated with providing
benefits for a fraction of the
         community
Primarily based on
selective benefits
3
Producer Groups
 represent enterprises that
produce goods or services,
   such as businesses or
        agriculture
Professional Groups
   represent the interests of
professionals, such as doctors,
     lawyers, and dentists.
Unions
 protect jobs of members,
work for maximum wage &
      benefit levels.
Think
Governments
                          Tanks


          “Gray Area”
        Interest Groups


  Astroturf     Issue ...
What Interest Groups Do
the “inside” and “outside” games
The Inside Game
Direct contact of interest
group representative and
   government officials
One-on-one
 Persuasion




              (cc) 2005 Flickr user Spamily
Requires an understanding of
  the “rules of the game”




                     (cc) 2006 Flickr user romainguy
The inside game is most
effective when the issues:
 are narrow and technical;
 do not command much media
 or public attent...
Inside Game
Lobbying Congress
(cc) 2007 Flickr user ethorson
(cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O




The Importance
 of Campaign
 Contributions
Provide Testimony at Public Hearings
       of Committees & Subcommittees




(cc) 2008 flickr user Robert Whitlock
The “Lobbyist’s Loop of Deceit”




                     (c) 2008 Valdis/NetworkWeaving.com
Inside Game
Lobbying Executive Branch
(cc) 2007 Flickr user ethorson
Helping the
Bureaucracy
The
Revolving
  Door?
The Outside Game
   Efforts to mobilize public
opinion, voters, and important
 contributors in order to bring
 pressure on...
Tools of the Outside Game
• Mobilizing Membership
• Organizing the District
• Shaping Opinion
  – Publication of Research ...
Interest Group System &
      Democracy
3
Inequalities in the Interest
     Group System
Representational Inequalities
involves the question of WHOM
   interest groups represent
2/3
Representational advantage
  of business, professions
      increasing
Business & Professional Groups
        have more permanency




(cc) 2007 Flickr user Rob Ball
Resource Inequalities
  interest groups representing
 business corporations and the
     professions represent a
substanti...
(cc) 2006 Flickr user thejedi
ROI
Do interest groups
  neutralize
  each other?
Access inequality
  inequalities of representation
and resources are accentuated
by the ability of some groups to
 form re...
Interest Group Liberalism
political system in which interest
groups help formulate and carry
    out government policies
Capture
  tendency for regulatory
 agencies to become allies,
 protectors, & advocates of
the industries that they were
  ...
Iron Triangles
 A three-way arrangement in
  which an alliance is formed
  between a private interest
group, a bureaucrati...
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PS 101 Interest Groups Fall 2008

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PS 101 Interest Groups Fall 2008

  1. 1. Interest Groups Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Interest Groups Organizations that try to shape public policy by influencing the behavior of political decision-makers.
  3. 3. Interest groups are important instruments to attain democracy and serve the public interest (cc) 2007 Flickr user Flyover Living
  4. 4. 3 Types of Interest Groups
  5. 5. Public Interest Groups (citizen groups)
  6. 6. (cc) 2007 Flickr user williamhartz Interests that are connected to the general welfare of the community
  7. 7. Non-Economic Groups motivated by: Ideology Desire to advance a cause Commitment to a particular public policy
  8. 8. Attract members using solidaristic or purposive incentives
  9. 9. Number of public interest groups has increased markedly since the 1960’s
  10. 10. Private Interest Groups (economic groups)
  11. 11. Groups with some tangible stake that they wish to protect or to advance by means of government action
  12. 12. Associated with providing benefits for a fraction of the community
  13. 13. Primarily based on selective benefits
  14. 14. 3
  15. 15. Producer Groups represent enterprises that produce goods or services, such as businesses or agriculture
  16. 16. Professional Groups represent the interests of professionals, such as doctors, lawyers, and dentists.
  17. 17. Unions protect jobs of members, work for maximum wage & benefit levels.
  18. 18. Think Governments Tanks “Gray Area” Interest Groups Astroturf Issue Networks Groups and Alliances
  19. 19. What Interest Groups Do the “inside” and “outside” games
  20. 20. The Inside Game Direct contact of interest group representative and government officials
  21. 21. One-on-one Persuasion (cc) 2005 Flickr user Spamily
  22. 22. Requires an understanding of the “rules of the game” (cc) 2006 Flickr user romainguy
  23. 23. The inside game is most effective when the issues: are narrow and technical; do not command much media or public attention; do not stir up counteractivity by other interest groups.
  24. 24. Inside Game Lobbying Congress
  25. 25. (cc) 2007 Flickr user ethorson
  26. 26. (cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O The Importance of Campaign Contributions
  27. 27. Provide Testimony at Public Hearings of Committees & Subcommittees (cc) 2008 flickr user Robert Whitlock
  28. 28. The “Lobbyist’s Loop of Deceit” (c) 2008 Valdis/NetworkWeaving.com
  29. 29. Inside Game Lobbying Executive Branch
  30. 30. (cc) 2007 Flickr user ethorson
  31. 31. Helping the Bureaucracy
  32. 32. The Revolving Door?
  33. 33. The Outside Game Efforts to mobilize public opinion, voters, and important contributors in order to bring pressure on elected officials
  34. 34. Tools of the Outside Game • Mobilizing Membership • Organizing the District • Shaping Opinion – Publication of Research results – Advertising – Maintaining working relationships with the media – Political Action Committees – Blogging and Web 2.0 activism
  35. 35. Interest Group System & Democracy
  36. 36. 3 Inequalities in the Interest Group System
  37. 37. Representational Inequalities involves the question of WHOM interest groups represent
  38. 38. 2/3
  39. 39. Representational advantage of business, professions increasing
  40. 40. Business & Professional Groups have more permanency (cc) 2007 Flickr user Rob Ball
  41. 41. Resource Inequalities interest groups representing business corporations and the professions represent a substantial resource advantage over others
  42. 42. (cc) 2006 Flickr user thejedi
  43. 43. ROI
  44. 44. Do interest groups neutralize each other?
  45. 45. Access inequality inequalities of representation and resources are accentuated by the ability of some groups to form relatively stable alliances with government institutions and decision-makers
  46. 46. Interest Group Liberalism political system in which interest groups help formulate and carry out government policies
  47. 47. Capture tendency for regulatory agencies to become allies, protectors, & advocates of the industries that they were intended to regulate
  48. 48. Iron Triangles A three-way arrangement in which an alliance is formed between a private interest group, a bureaucratic agency, and a Congressional committee or subcommittee.

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