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Political Parties Dr. Christopher S. Rice
What is a political party?
Political Party An ongoing coalition of interests joined together in an effort to get its candidates for public office ele...
2
Parties give citizens the capacity to act together
Enables people from diverse backgrounds with diverse interests to unite behind a single alternative
“ It is the competition of [parties] that provides the people with an opportunity to make a choice. Without this opportuni...
Party Coalition the groups and interests that support a party
The Necessity of Coalitions
Generally speaking, do you identify with the Republican party, the Democratic party, or do you consider yourself to be an ...
Democratic coalition  tends to draw from society’s “underdogs”
Democratic Party Coalition <ul><li>Blacks </li></ul><ul><li>union members </li></ul><ul><li>the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Urb...
Republican Party Coalition <ul><li>Consists primarily of white, middle-class Protestants (largely evangelical).  </li></ul...
Republican Party Coalition <ul><li>Consists primarily of white, middle-class Protestants (largely evangelical).  </li></ul...
 
Party Organization the formal organizational apparatus of a political party
Party Organizations <ul><li>Roles and Functions of Party Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Party Organizations ...
The major functions of political parties include all of the following EXCEPT: <ul><li>to promote government responsiveness...
Roles and Functions of  Party Organizations <ul><li>Primary purpose of a party organization is to run candidates for elect...
Some of these functions are being taken over by  527 groups
Structure of Party Organizations
loose associations of national, state and local party organizations
Cooperation, not control
Levels of Party Organizations <ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul>
 
VS.
Which party do you believe to be more effective at modern campaigning? <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats </l...
Republicans: Ahead of the Game?
Democrats: Lagging Behind but Catching Up
Blogs & the Emerging “Netroots”
Change in Nomination Process + Decline in Patronage __________________________ Decline in Party Organizations
Nomination selection of individual who will run as the party’s candidate in the general election.
A political system in which three or more political parties effectively compete for offices, no single party can win contr...
3 Types of Party Systems
One-party system A political system in which representatives of one political party hold all or almost all the major offic...
Two-party system A political system in which only two political parties have a realistic chance of controlling the major o...
Multi-party system A political system in which three or more political parties effectively compete for political office an...
Why does the US have  a two party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Minor Parties </li></u...
Most democratic nations use a  proportional representation  system.
Source: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)
CLOSED LIST OPEN LIST SOURCE: ACCURATEDEMOCRACY.COM
United States uses a  First Past The Post (FPTP)  System
aka, Plurality, Single-Member District system
“ Winner Takes All”
US system discourages rise of Third Parties (cc) 2005 Grant Neufeld - Creative Commons, Some Rights Reserved
Why does the US have  a two party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Minor Parties </li></u...
The major parties often establish rules that make it difficult for other parties to get on the ballot. (cc) 2006 Adrian Li...
Qualification rules for third-party presidential candidates can create financial difficulties… (cc) 2006 Steven Hoang - So...
Suspension of the FCC’s “equal time” and “fairness doctrine” requirements creates difficulties for third party candidates ...
Why does the US have  a two party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Minor Parties </li></u...
The broad belief in The American Creed leaves little room for parties outside the mainstream. (cc) 2006 Samuel Eichner - S...
People grow comfortable with the system they are used to… (cc) 2006 Mattias Berg - Some Rights Reserved
“ Human institutions have an impressive capacity to perpetuate themselves, or at least to preserve their form.”   ~ V.O. Key
 
Which of the following is NOT a reason why the US has a two-party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Consti...
Minor parties in the two-party system
 
PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
The Role of Minor Parties
Articulate and popularize new ideas
Allow people with grievances to express themselves in a way not possible within the major parties.
Minor parties are usually not as  cautious as the major parties <ul><li>Tend to be loud, unambiguous about policies, ideol...
When a new and stable (or long-term) pattern of partisan preferences is seen in the public, a(n) ________ is said to have ...
Realignment When a new party system has taken the place of the old system because of a fundamental shift in the types of g...
Realignment Why are they caused?
Realignment When do they tend to occur?
Critical elections?
1932
Dealignment Transformation of the party system in which a previously dominant party loses its dominant status but no new p...
Parity  isn’t just for the NFL or College Basketball!
Public  identifies less with either party , increasingly  becomes alienated from them ,   less confident parties can solve...
Evidence supporting  dealignment analysis: <ul><li>Decline in strong party identifiers among American citizens. </li></ul>...
 
 
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Political Parties

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Presentation developed for a series of lectures on political parties for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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Transcript of "Political Parties"

  1. 1. Political Parties Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. What is a political party?
  3. 3. Political Party An ongoing coalition of interests joined together in an effort to get its candidates for public office elected under a common label.
  4. 4. 2
  5. 5. Parties give citizens the capacity to act together
  6. 6. Enables people from diverse backgrounds with diverse interests to unite behind a single alternative
  7. 7. “ It is the competition of [parties] that provides the people with an opportunity to make a choice. Without this opportunity popular sovereignty amounts to nothing.” - E.E. Schattschneider
  8. 8. Party Coalition the groups and interests that support a party
  9. 9. The Necessity of Coalitions
  10. 10. Generally speaking, do you identify with the Republican party, the Democratic party, or do you consider yourself to be an Independent? <ul><li>Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul>
  11. 11. Democratic coalition tends to draw from society’s “underdogs”
  12. 12. Democratic Party Coalition <ul><li>Blacks </li></ul><ul><li>union members </li></ul><ul><li>the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Urban dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics </li></ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Gays and Lesbians </li></ul><ul><li>and other minorities </li></ul>
  13. 13. Republican Party Coalition <ul><li>Consists primarily of white, middle-class Protestants (largely evangelical). </li></ul><ul><li>GOP tends to do better in the suburbs, the South and Midwest, and among white fundamentalist Christians. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Republican Party Coalition <ul><li>Consists primarily of white, middle-class Protestants (largely evangelical). </li></ul><ul><li>GOP tends to do better in the suburbs, the South and Midwest, and among white fundamentalist Christians. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Party Organization the formal organizational apparatus of a political party
  16. 17. Party Organizations <ul><li>Roles and Functions of Party Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Party Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between Republican and Democratic Party Organizations </li></ul>
  17. 18. The major functions of political parties include all of the following EXCEPT: <ul><li>to promote government responsiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>to facilitate the participation of large numbers of people. </li></ul><ul><li>to facilitate transference of government power. </li></ul><ul><li>to promote peaceful resolution of conflict. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Roles and Functions of Party Organizations <ul><li>Primary purpose of a party organization is to run candidates for election. </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate Interest in Politics and Government </li></ul>
  19. 20. Some of these functions are being taken over by 527 groups
  20. 21. Structure of Party Organizations
  21. 22. loose associations of national, state and local party organizations
  22. 23. Cooperation, not control
  23. 24. Levels of Party Organizations <ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul>
  24. 26. VS.
  25. 27. Which party do you believe to be more effective at modern campaigning? <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know/Don’t Care </li></ul>
  26. 28. Republicans: Ahead of the Game?
  27. 29. Democrats: Lagging Behind but Catching Up
  28. 30. Blogs & the Emerging “Netroots”
  29. 31. Change in Nomination Process + Decline in Patronage __________________________ Decline in Party Organizations
  30. 32. Nomination selection of individual who will run as the party’s candidate in the general election.
  31. 33. A political system in which three or more political parties effectively compete for offices, no single party can win control over government, and ruling coalitions tend to be used to make political decisions, is known as a: <ul><li>multi-party system. </li></ul><ul><li>two-party system. </li></ul><ul><li>unification system. </li></ul><ul><li>coalition system. </li></ul>
  32. 34. 3 Types of Party Systems
  33. 35. One-party system A political system in which representatives of one political party hold all or almost all the major offices in government.
  34. 36. Two-party system A political system in which only two political parties have a realistic chance of controlling the major offices of government.
  35. 37. Multi-party system A political system in which three or more political parties effectively compete for political office and no one party can win control of all offices.
  36. 38. Why does the US have a two party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Minor Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of the American Public </li></ul>
  37. 39. Most democratic nations use a proportional representation system.
  38. 40. Source: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)
  39. 41. CLOSED LIST OPEN LIST SOURCE: ACCURATEDEMOCRACY.COM
  40. 42. United States uses a First Past The Post (FPTP) System
  41. 43. aka, Plurality, Single-Member District system
  42. 44. “ Winner Takes All”
  43. 45. US system discourages rise of Third Parties (cc) 2005 Grant Neufeld - Creative Commons, Some Rights Reserved
  44. 46. Why does the US have a two party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Minor Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of the American Public </li></ul>
  45. 47. The major parties often establish rules that make it difficult for other parties to get on the ballot. (cc) 2006 Adrian Liem - Creative Commons Some Rights Reserved
  46. 48. Qualification rules for third-party presidential candidates can create financial difficulties… (cc) 2006 Steven Hoang - Some Rights Reserved
  47. 49. Suspension of the FCC’s “equal time” and “fairness doctrine” requirements creates difficulties for third party candidates to get invited to the debates. (cc) 2000 Ruby Sinreich - Some Rights Reserved
  48. 50. Why does the US have a two party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Minor Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of the American Public </li></ul>
  49. 51. The broad belief in The American Creed leaves little room for parties outside the mainstream. (cc) 2006 Samuel Eichner - Some Rights Reserved
  50. 52. People grow comfortable with the system they are used to… (cc) 2006 Mattias Berg - Some Rights Reserved
  51. 53. “ Human institutions have an impressive capacity to perpetuate themselves, or at least to preserve their form.” ~ V.O. Key
  52. 55. Which of the following is NOT a reason why the US has a two-party system? <ul><li>Electoral Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of the American Public </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on minor parties </li></ul><ul><li>All of these are reasons the US has a two-party system </li></ul>
  53. 56. Minor parties in the two-party system
  54. 58. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
  55. 59. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
  56. 60. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
  57. 61. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
  58. 62. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER Types of Minor Parties
  59. 63. The Role of Minor Parties
  60. 64. Articulate and popularize new ideas
  61. 65. Allow people with grievances to express themselves in a way not possible within the major parties.
  62. 66. Minor parties are usually not as cautious as the major parties <ul><li>Tend to be loud, unambiguous about policies, ideologically committed. </li></ul><ul><li>Expand the scope of conflict in American politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase interest and attention among at least some segments of the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring a few more Americans into the political process. </li></ul>
  63. 67. When a new and stable (or long-term) pattern of partisan preferences is seen in the public, a(n) ________ is said to have occurred. <ul><li>critical election </li></ul><ul><li>partisan shift </li></ul><ul><li>party transference </li></ul><ul><li>electoral realignment </li></ul>
  64. 68. Realignment When a new party system has taken the place of the old system because of a fundamental shift in the types of groups that support the parties.
  65. 69. Realignment Why are they caused?
  66. 70. Realignment When do they tend to occur?
  67. 71. Critical elections?
  68. 72. 1932
  69. 73. Dealignment Transformation of the party system in which a previously dominant party loses its dominant status but no new party takes its place.
  70. 74. Parity isn’t just for the NFL or College Basketball!
  71. 75. Public identifies less with either party , increasingly becomes alienated from them , less confident parties can solve nation’s problems (cc) 2006 photoreciprocity - Some Rights Reserved
  72. 76. Evidence supporting dealignment analysis: <ul><li>Decline in strong party identifiers among American citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in those claiming to be independents. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide-spread distrust in capacities, intentions of both parties & their leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation of independent candidates and third-party efforts, 1992-2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans did NOT support a conservative shift in national policies in the 1994, 2000 elections. </li></ul>

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