Modernization Theory


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Presentation on Modernization Theory for PS 212 Culture and Politics in the Third World at the University of Kentucky, Summer 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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Modernization Theory

  1. 1. Modernization Theory Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Rise of the United States as a Superpower
  3. 3. Spread of a (perceived) united world Communist movement
  4. 4. Disintegration of the European colonial empires
  5. 5. Evolutionary Theory
  6. 6. Features of Classic Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>Assumed social change is unidirectional </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed a value judgment on the evolutionary process </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed that the rate of social change is slow, gradual & piecemeal (evolutionary NOT revolutionary) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Functionalist Theory
  8. 9. The Functional Imperatives (AGIL) <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Goal attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul>
  9. 10. Homeostatic Equilibrium
  10. 11. Criticism of Parsons
  11. 12. Parson’s “Pattern Variables” <ul><li>Affective vs. affective-neutral relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Particularistic vs. Universal relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Collective orientation vs. self-orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Ascription vs. Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Functionally diffused vs. functionally specific relationships </li></ul>
  12. 13. Marion Levy Relatively Modernized Societies
  13. 14. How is Modernization defined?
  14. 15. Why does Modernization occur?
  15. 16. Relatively non-modern societies are characterized by: <ul><li>Low degree of specialization </li></ul><ul><li>High level of self-sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms of tradition, particularism, & functional diffuseness </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively little emphasis on money circulation & market </li></ul><ul><li>Family norms such as nepotism </li></ul><ul><li>One-way flow of goods and services from rural to urban areas </li></ul>
  16. 17. Relatively modern societies are characterized by: <ul><li>High degree of specialization & interdependency of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms of rationality, universalism, & functional specificity </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively great emphasis on money circulation & market </li></ul><ul><li>The need to insulate bureaucracy from other contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way flow of goods & services between towns and villages </li></ul>
  17. 18. What if you come late to the party?
  18. 19. Advantages Disadvantages <ul><li>Knowing where they are going </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to borrow initial expertise in planning, capital accumulation, skills, & patterns of organization without the costs of invention. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to skip some of the non-essential stages associated with the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of conversion of resources, materials, skills, etc. from one use to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of disappointment. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people get hurt in a society’s movement toward relatively modernized patterns. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>“ Traditional Society” </li></ul><ul><li>Precondition for takeoff growth </li></ul><ul><li>Takeoff </li></ul><ul><li>Drive to Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>High mass-consumption society </li></ul>
  20. 21. How do you get the necessary capital for “Takeoff”? confiscatory and taxation devices PI from banks, capital markets, government bonds, & the stock market PI through foreign trade PI through direct foreign capital investment
  21. 22. Theoretical Assumptions of Modernization Theory
  22. 23. From Functionalist Theory <ul><li>Modernization is a systematic process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization is a transformative process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization is an immanent process </li></ul>
  23. 24. From Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>Modernization is a phased process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization is a homogenizing process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization is an Americanization (or Europeanization) process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization is an irreversible process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization is a progressive process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization is a lengthy process </li></ul>
  24. 25. Policy Implications
  25. 26. 4 Criticisms of Modernization Theory
  26. 27. Unidirectional Development
  27. 28. Need to Eliminate Traditional Values
  28. 29. Ideological Critique
  29. 30. “ These epistemological sins led to the theoretical errors of belief in incremental and continuous development, the possibility of orderly and stable change, the diffusion of development from the West to the Third World, and the decline of revolutionary ideology and the spread of pragmatic and scientific thinking.” Sydney Almond
  30. 31. 4 Epistemological Sins of MT <ul><li>Belief in the possibility of an objective social science free of ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in the cumulative quality of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in universal laws of social science. </li></ul><ul><li>Export of these beliefs to the Third World countries. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Neglect of the Issue of Foreign Domination