Marxism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
 
The Early Marx
Marx Becomes A Philosopher
2 effects of his career in Journalism
He came to appreciate the central social and political importance of economics
He ceased to be a  liberal  and became a  radical
 
The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
Hegel  and his influence on Marxism
Hegel’s Philosophy of History
Geist
Alienation ( entfremdung )
Dialectic the process whereby opposite views or forces come into conflict, which eventually leads to the overcoming or rec...
The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li...
The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li...
The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li...
The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li...
The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li...
The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li...
History as the Story of Human Labor and Struggle
“ The history of all hitherto existing society is the  history of class struggles .”
Materialist vs. Idealist
Material Forces of Production + Social Relations of Production = Material Production
Material Forces of Production
Social Relations of Production
The Dialectic of Class
Class determined by relation to the forces of production
Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: <ul><li>Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Control o...
Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: <ul><li>Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Control o...
False Consciousness
Base & Superstructure
Marx’s Materialist Conception of Society (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) IDEOLOGICAL SUPERSTRUC...
“ Religion is the opiate of the masses”
Possessive Individualism
Marx’s Critique of Capitalism
“ The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a most revolutionary part.”
Capitalism’s 3 important progressive functions
<ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over natur...
<ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over natur...
<ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over natur...
So why should Capitalism be replaced???
3   Reasons
Capitalism is   Outmoded
Capitalism creates   Alienation
4 ways in which workers are  alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor becaus...
4 ways in which workers are  alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor becaus...
4 ways in which workers are  alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor becaus...
4 ways in which workers are  alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor becaus...
Capitalism is Self-subverting
Why capitalism is DOOOOOOOMED!
Capitalism contains within itself the seeds of its own destruction
Capitalism has created its own “grave-diggers” by creating a class with interests diametrically opposed to its own, brough...
Thus, they become a unified class, which has common interests and a common enemy, the bourgeoisie
The proletariat then comes to realize that it is a class with nothing to lose but everything to gain by revolting against ...
Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know...
 
Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know...
Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know...
Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know...
The Revolutionary Sequence COMMUNISM WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT SEIZURE OF STATE POWER RE...
The Marxist View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) OBSTACLE: Class divisions, economic...
 
Architecture vs. Capitalism
 
“ Capitalism, he discovered, produced only ugly, pretentious luxury goods for slave owners and ugly, shoddy goods for slav...
The Arts & Crafts Movement
“ I have tried to produce goods which should be genuine as far as their mere substances are concerned, and should have on ...
Artistic Criticism Social Criticism
Morris Transforms
Morris’ Marxism
The problem of political action: “Making Marxists”
Morris’ Principles <ul><li>It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and b...
Morris’ Principles <ul><li>It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and b...
Morris’ Principles <ul><li>No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him al...
Morris’ Principles <ul><li>No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him al...
 
Lenin’s Contributions to Marxism
Vanguard Party
Marx vs. Lenin
The Party’s chief role is to agitate, organize, and educate the workers, teaching them where their “true” interests lie, i...
The Intellectuals  MUST  Lead!
No faith in the  “working-class mentality”
Imperialism
Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by...
Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by...
Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by...
Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by...
Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by...
 
Maoism: Marxism “through a glass, darkly”
Heavily influenced by Lenin’s  Imperialism
Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese  agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons: <ul><li>Poor peasant farmers were an overwhelming m...
Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese  agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons: <ul><li>Poor peasant farmers were an overwhelming m...
Urban Proletariat Peasantry
Mao   vs.  Marx <ul><li>Subjective Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Political Will </li></ul><...
The Class Struggle recast…
Importance of the Vanguard Party
 
Die Institut für Sozialforschung
The Frankfurt School
 
 
 
 
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Marxism

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Slide show prepared for a series of lectures on Marxism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory at the University of Kentucky, Fall 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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Transcript of "Marxism"

  1. 1. Marxism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 3. The Early Marx
  3. 4. Marx Becomes A Philosopher
  4. 5. 2 effects of his career in Journalism
  5. 6. He came to appreciate the central social and political importance of economics
  6. 7. He ceased to be a liberal and became a radical
  7. 9. The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
  8. 10. Hegel and his influence on Marxism
  9. 11. Hegel’s Philosophy of History
  10. 12. Geist
  11. 13. Alienation ( entfremdung )
  12. 14. Dialectic the process whereby opposite views or forces come into conflict, which eventually leads to the overcoming or reconciliation of the opposition in a new and presumably higher form
  13. 15. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  14. 16. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  15. 17. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  16. 18. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  17. 19. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  18. 20. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  19. 21. History as the Story of Human Labor and Struggle
  20. 22. “ The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles .”
  21. 23. Materialist vs. Idealist
  22. 24. Material Forces of Production + Social Relations of Production = Material Production
  23. 25. Material Forces of Production
  24. 26. Social Relations of Production
  25. 27. The Dialectic of Class
  26. 28. Class determined by relation to the forces of production
  27. 29. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: <ul><li>Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Control of the Mental Means of Production </li></ul>
  28. 30. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: <ul><li>Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Control of the Mental Means of Production </li></ul>
  29. 31. False Consciousness
  30. 32. Base & Superstructure
  31. 33. Marx’s Materialist Conception of Society (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) IDEOLOGICAL SUPERSTRUCTURE BASE IDEAS, IDEALS, BELIEFS (Morality, Law, Religion, Etc.) SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION MATERIAL FORCES OF PRODUCTION (“Productive Forces”)
  32. 34. “ Religion is the opiate of the masses”
  33. 35. Possessive Individualism
  34. 36. Marx’s Critique of Capitalism
  35. 37. “ The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a most revolutionary part.”
  36. 38. Capitalism’s 3 important progressive functions
  37. 39. <ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism requires constant innovation and change </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism requires constant innovation and change </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism requires constant innovation and change </li></ul>
  40. 42. So why should Capitalism be replaced???
  41. 43. 3 Reasons
  42. 44. Capitalism is Outmoded
  43. 45. Capitalism creates Alienation
  44. 46. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  45. 47. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  46. 48. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  47. 49. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Capitalism is Self-subverting
  49. 51. Why capitalism is DOOOOOOOMED!
  50. 52. Capitalism contains within itself the seeds of its own destruction
  51. 53. Capitalism has created its own “grave-diggers” by creating a class with interests diametrically opposed to its own, brought them together & taught them how to cooperate
  52. 54. Thus, they become a unified class, which has common interests and a common enemy, the bourgeoisie
  53. 55. The proletariat then comes to realize that it is a class with nothing to lose but everything to gain by revolting against and overthrowing the bourgeoisie
  54. 56. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  55. 58. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  56. 59. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  57. 60. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  58. 61. The Revolutionary Sequence COMMUNISM WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT SEIZURE OF STATE POWER REVOLUTIONARY CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS IMMISERATION OF THE PROLETARIAT ECONOMIC CRISES
  59. 62. The Marxist View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) OBSTACLE: Class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal life chances, “False Consciousness&quot; AGENT: Common/ Working People; The proletariat GOAL: Fulfillment of human potential and needs
  60. 64. Architecture vs. Capitalism
  61. 66. “ Capitalism, he discovered, produced only ugly, pretentious luxury goods for slave owners and ugly, shoddy goods for slaves.” - A.L. Morton
  62. 67. The Arts & Crafts Movement
  63. 68. “ I have tried to produce goods which should be genuine as far as their mere substances are concerned, and should have on that account the primary beauty in them which belongs to naturally treated substances.” William Morris
  64. 69. Artistic Criticism Social Criticism
  65. 70. Morris Transforms
  66. 71. Morris’ Marxism
  67. 72. The problem of political action: “Making Marxists”
  68. 73. Morris’ Principles <ul><li>It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and be of itself pleasant to do; and which should be done under such conditions as would make it neither over-wearisome nor over-anxious. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing should be made by men’s labour which is not worth making; or which must be made by labour degrading to the makers. </li></ul>
  69. 74. Morris’ Principles <ul><li>It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which shall be worth doing, and be of itself pleasant to do; and which should be done under such conditions as would make it neither over-wearisome nor over-anxious. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing should be made by men’s labour which is not worth making; or which must be made by labour degrading to the makers. </li></ul>
  70. 75. Morris’ Principles <ul><li>No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him all due necessities of mind and body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honourable and fitting work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decency of Surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is NECESSARY to human well-being that “In a well ordered state of Society every man willing to work should be ensured honourable and fitting work, a healthy and beautiful house, and full leisure for mind and body.” </li></ul>
  71. 76. Morris’ Principles <ul><li>No one who is willing to work should ever fear want of such employment as would earn for him all due necessities of mind and body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honourable and fitting work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decency of Surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is NECESSARY to human well-being that “In a well ordered state of Society every man willing to work should be ensured honourable and fitting work, a healthy and beautiful house, and full leisure for mind and body.” </li></ul>
  72. 78. Lenin’s Contributions to Marxism
  73. 79. Vanguard Party
  74. 80. Marx vs. Lenin
  75. 81. The Party’s chief role is to agitate, organize, and educate the workers, teaching them where their “true” interests lie, i.e., overcome False Consciousness.
  76. 82. The Intellectuals MUST Lead!
  77. 83. No faith in the “working-class mentality”
  78. 84. Imperialism
  79. 85. Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution will come FIRST to those areas most immiserated and led by an active vanguard party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of coming first to the most developed capitalist countries as Marx expected, Lenin said it will begin in the more backward nations, e.g., Russia and China. </li></ul></ul>
  80. 86. Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution will come FIRST to those areas most immiserated and led by an active vanguard party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of coming first to the most developed capitalist countries as Marx expected, Lenin said it will begin in the more backward nations, e.g., Russia and China. </li></ul></ul>
  81. 87. Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution will come FIRST to those areas most immiserated and led by an active vanguard party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of coming first to the most developed capitalist countries as Marx expected, Lenin said it will begin in the more backward nations, e.g., Russia and China. </li></ul></ul>
  82. 88. Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution will come FIRST to those areas most immiserated and led by an active vanguard party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of coming first to the most developed capitalist countries as Marx expected, Lenin said it will begin in the more backward nations, e.g., Russia and China. </li></ul></ul>
  83. 89. Four Conclusions: <ul><li>Confirmed his suspicions and hatred of the “revisionist” Marxists who proposed gradual change by working through parties within the current system. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the working-class in the West have been infected with a “trade union mentality,” in effect becoming “bourgeoisie” themselves, and unreliable for bringing the Marxian revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The (Vanguard) Party plays the indispensable role of raising the consciousness of the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution will come FIRST to those areas most immiserated and led by an active vanguard party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of coming first to the most developed capitalist countries as Marx expected, Lenin said it will begin in the more backward nations, e.g., Russia and China. </li></ul></ul>
  84. 91. Maoism: Marxism “through a glass, darkly”
  85. 92. Heavily influenced by Lenin’s Imperialism
  86. 93. Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons: <ul><li>Poor peasant farmers were an overwhelming majority of the Chinese population, and if organized and mobilized, would provide an almost irresistible force. </li></ul><ul><li>They were the poorest and most oppressed segment of the population. They had nothing to lose but everything to gain from revolution against their oppressors. </li></ul>
  87. 94. Mao proposed to rely on the Chinese agrarian peasantry for 2 reasons: <ul><li>Poor peasant farmers were an overwhelming majority of the Chinese population, and if organized and mobilized, would provide an almost irresistible force. </li></ul><ul><li>They were the poorest and most oppressed segment of the population. They had nothing to lose but everything to gain from revolution against their oppressors. </li></ul>
  88. 95. Urban Proletariat Peasantry
  89. 96. Mao vs. Marx <ul><li>Subjective Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Political Will </li></ul><ul><li>Material or Objective Conditions </li></ul>
  90. 97. The Class Struggle recast…
  91. 98. Importance of the Vanguard Party
  92. 100. Die Institut für Sozialforschung
  93. 101. The Frankfurt School

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