Liberalism

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A slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on Liberalism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory at the University of Kentucky, Fall 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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Liberalism

  1. 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The American Political Spectrum is small…
  3. 4. The startling Western transformation of 1500-1700
  4. 5. Organic vs. Mechanistic
  5. 6. Organic Worldview
  6. 7. First Nature
  7. 8. Second Nature
  8. 9. The world is a living world…
  9. 10. Unrestrained growth is an aberration, undesired
  10. 11. Mechanistic Worldview
  11. 12. The $$$ World
  12. 13. The world is a “dead” world…
  13. 14. Lack of continuous growth = death
  14. 15. The Organic Worldview
  15. 16. Ruach
  16. 18. Gaia
  17. 19. The rise of capitalism
  18. 20. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  19. 24. Cogito Ergo Sum
  20. 26. Mechanistic Philosophy
  21. 28. Logical Positivism
  22. 29. Is science objective? Economics?
  23. 31. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  24. 32. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  25. 33. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  26. 34. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  27. 35. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  28. 36. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  29. 37. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  30. 38. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  31. 39. Liberal Philosophy
  32. 40. Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  33. 41. Equality
  34. 42. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  35. 43. Liberty
  36. 44. Individuality
  37. 45. Rationality
  38. 46. Liberal Society
  39. 47. wars of religion and the rise of modern science in the 16th and 17th centuries
  40. 48. Feudalism Capitalism
  41. 49. Why a free-market economy is important…
  42. 50. The Pursuit of “the Good”
  43. 51. this does not mean that all beliefs and ways of life are treated as being equal
  44. 52. we have the right to find out the worth (or worthlessness) of our opinions for ourselves.
  45. 53. A way of life that cannot withstand the light of public scrutiny is not worth saving in the first place.
  46. 54. Individuals must be allowed to make mistakes so they can learn from them.
  47. 55. Liberal Politics
  48. 56. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  49. 57. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  50. 58. Government is BAD! Government is GREAT!
  51. 59. Neoclassical Liberals/ Social Darwinists vs. Welfare Liberals
  52. 60. The Liberal View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”) OBSTACLE: Laws, customs, or conditions that block individual choice (or pursuit of “the good”) AGENT: The “Atomistic” Individual GOAL: To live as one chooses, pursue one’s own idea of “the good.”
  53. 62. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  54. 63. Government’s job is to ameliorate the effects of utility maximization which bring harm to others
  55. 64. 2 general conclusions about government
  56. 65. Government can best promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number by leaving people alone .
  57. 66. Government is not likely to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number if it is only open to a small number.
  58. 68. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  59. 70. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  60. 72. Natural Rights
  61. 73. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  62. 74. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  63. 75. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  64. 76. Neoclassical liberalism
  65. 77. Social Darwinism
  66. 81. Welfare Liberalism
  67. 82. Government as a POSITIVE force
  68. 84. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  69. 85. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  70. 87. Option #1: Money can be divided up such that 20% of us will get 82.7% of the income and property, 20% will get 11.7% of income and property, 20% will get 2.3% of income, 20% will get 1.9%, and the last 20% will get 1.4%.
  71. 88. Option #2: Divide it up such that everyone gets an equal share of the wealth and property, regardless of job or status. (Each group will get 20% of income, divided equally).
  72. 90. The Veil of Ignorance
  73. 91. The Original Position
  74. 92. The Original Position Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if consensually held, would lead everyone to accept the equal liberty and difference principles as the basis for mutually beneficial social cooperation.
  75. 93. 4 Ideas of The Original Position
  76. 94. Equal Respect
  77. 95. Non-risky Rationality
  78. 96. Mutual Disinterestedness
  79. 97. The Veil of Ignorance
  80. 98. 2 Principles of Justice
  81. 99. Equal Liberty Principle The state must provide the most extensive system of equal liberties that is feasible and desirable. All individuals must enjoy the greatest degree of liberty consistent with the enjoyment of like liberty by everyone else.
  82. 100. Difference Principle Primary social goods are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution would improve the welfare of the least well-off in society.
  83. 101. PROBLEMS
  84. 102. Keynesian Economics
  85. 104. The problem of market failures and inefficiencies
  86. 105. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: <ul><li>Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. </li></ul><ul><li>Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity. </li></ul>
  87. 106. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: <ul><li>Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. </li></ul><ul><li>Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity. </li></ul>
  88. 107. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: <ul><li>Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. </li></ul><ul><li>Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity. </li></ul>
  89. 108. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: <ul><li>Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone. </li></ul>
  90. 109. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: <ul><li>Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone. </li></ul>
  91. 110. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: <ul><li>Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone. </li></ul>
  92. 111. 2 Methods of Stimulating the Economy
  93. 112. Increase government expenditures
  94. 113. Reduce taxes
  95. 114. “ Priming the Pump” + The “Multiplier Effect”
  96. 115. In case of an overheated economy…
  97. 116. Three ways to deal with deficits: <ul><li>Grow your way out of it – as incomes rise, taxes rise as people move up through the tax brackets. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase income taxes on the wealthy, create luxury taxes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce government spending in specific areas where it is no longer needed. </li></ul>
  98. 117. Three ways to deal with deficits: <ul><li>Grow your way out of it – as incomes rise, taxes rise as people move up through the tax brackets. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase income taxes on the wealthy, create luxury taxes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce government spending in specific areas where it is no longer needed. </li></ul>
  99. 118. Three ways to deal with deficits: <ul><li>Grow your way out of it – as incomes rise, taxes rise as people move up through the tax brackets. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase income taxes on the wealthy, create luxury taxes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce government spending in specific areas where it is no longer needed. </li></ul>
  100. 119. Objectivism
  101. 123. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; </li></ul><ul><li>That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; </li></ul><ul><li>That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; </li></ul><ul><li>That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality; </li></ul>
  102. 124. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; </li></ul><ul><li>That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; </li></ul><ul><li>That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; </li></ul><ul><li>That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality; </li></ul>
  103. 125. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; </li></ul><ul><li>That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; </li></ul><ul><li>That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; </li></ul><ul><li>That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality; </li></ul>
  104. 126. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That reality is what it is, that things are what they are, independent of anyone's beliefs, feelings, judgments or opinions -- that existence exists, that A is A; </li></ul><ul><li>That reason, the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by the various senses, is fully competent, in principle, to understand the facts of reality; </li></ul><ul><li>That any form of irrationalism, supernaturalism, or mysticism, any claim to a nonsensory, nonrational form of knowledge, is to be rejected; </li></ul><ul><li>That a rational code of ethics is possible and is derivable from an appropriate assessment of the nature of human beings as well as the nature of reality; </li></ul>
  105. 127. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That the standard of the good is not God or the alleged needs of society but rather &quot;Man's life,&quot; that which is objectively required for man's or woman's life, survival, and well-being; </li></ul><ul><li>That a human being is an end in him- or herself, that each one of us has the right to exist for our own sake, neither sacrificing others to self nor self to others; </li></ul><ul><li>That the principles of justice and respect for individuality autonomy, and personal rights must replace the principle of sacrifice in human relationships; </li></ul>
  106. 128. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That the standard of the good is not God or the alleged needs of society but rather &quot;Man's life,&quot; that which is objectively required for man's or woman's life, survival, and well-being; </li></ul><ul><li>That a human being is an end in him- or herself, that each one of us has the right to exist for our own sake, neither sacrificing others to self nor self to others; </li></ul><ul><li>That the principles of justice and respect for individuality autonomy, and personal rights must replace the principle of sacrifice in human relationships; </li></ul>
  107. 129. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That the standard of the good is not God or the alleged needs of society but rather &quot;Man's life,&quot; that which is objectively required for man's or woman's life, survival, and well-being; </li></ul><ul><li>That a human being is an end in him- or herself, that each one of us has the right to exist for our own sake, neither sacrificing others to self nor self to others; </li></ul><ul><li>That the principles of justice and respect for individuality autonomy, and personal rights must replace the principle of sacrifice in human relationships; </li></ul>
  108. 130. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral right to initiate the use of force against others; </li></ul><ul><li>That force is permissible only in retaliation and only against those who have initiated its use; </li></ul><ul><li>That the organizing principle of a moral society is respect for individual rights and that the sole appropriate function of government is to act as guardian and protector of individual rights. </li></ul>
  109. 131. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral right to initiate the use of force against others; </li></ul><ul><li>That force is permissible only in retaliation and only against those who have initiated its use; </li></ul><ul><li>That the organizing principle of a moral society is respect for individual rights and that the sole appropriate function of government is to act as guardian and protector of individual rights. </li></ul>
  110. 132. Principles of Objectivism <ul><li>That no individual -- and no group -- has the moral right to initiate the use of force against others; </li></ul><ul><li>That force is permissible only in retaliation and only against those who have initiated its use; </li></ul><ul><li>That the organizing principle of a moral society is respect for individual rights and that the sole appropriate function of government is to act as guardian and protector of individual rights. </li></ul>
  111. 133. Liberalism as Meta-Ideology
  112. 135. “ The triumph of the West, of the Western idea, is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.” Francis Fukuyama, The End of History
  113. 136. the distinctiveness of liberalism consists in its being the dominant ideology rather than un-ideological
  114. 137. 2 processes
  115. 138. domination of society by increasingly large and powerful corporations
  116. 139. increased functional differentiation
  117. 140. ?

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