Globalization

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Presentation prepared for a series of lectures on Globalization for PS 212 Culture and Politics of the Third World at the University of Kentucky, Summer 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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Globalization

  1. 1. Globalization Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Globalization a multi-dimensional process integrating the world’s economies, cultures, technologies, societies and governance
  3. 3. “ Take, for instance the path that a strawberry in a Chicago supermarket took to get there. The strawberry “is likely to have come from Mexico, where it might have been grown with the help of pesticides made in the Rhine Valley of Germany and a tractor made in Japan. The tractor, perhaps constructed with Korean steel cast from iron ingots dug from the territory of tribal peoples in Papua New Guinea, was likely fueled with diesel pumped from the earth in southern Mexico. At harvest time, the strawberry may have been packed in a box made of cardboard from Canadian softwood pulp, wrapped in plastic manufactured in New Jersey, and loaded on a truck made in Italy with German, Japanese, and American parts. The ecological wakes of the…strawberry – like the production lines themselves – span the globe.” - Alan Durning
  4. 4. The Five Dimensions of Global Cultural Flow <ul><li>Ethnoscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Mediascapes </li></ul><ul><li>Technoscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Finanscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Ideoscapes </li></ul>
  5. 5. How is globalization different from previous eras of colonialism?
  6. 6. New Markets
  7. 7. New Tools for Communication (Faster, Cheaper)
  8. 8. New Actors
  9. 9. New Rules
  10. 10. Neocolonialism The process by which rich, powerful, developed states use economic, political or other informal means to exert pressure on poor, less-powerful underdeveloped states.
  11. 11. Adverse effects of globalization
  12. 12. The “challenge of globalization in the new century is not to stop the expansion of global markets.” Rather, the challenge is to “ensure that globalization works for people – not just for profits.” 1999 UNDP Human Development Report
  13. 13. The 1999 HDR says we need globalization with: <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Human Security </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dimensions of Globalization SOCIAL POLITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGICAL ECONOMIC CULTURAL
  15. 15. 3 Changes in the Global Landscape
  16. 16. Shrinking Space (cc) 2004 by Flickr user Jurvetson
  17. 17. Shrinking Time (cc) 2006 by Flickr user Mactiste iPons
  18. 18. Vanishing Borders (cc) 2006 by Flickr user east of the yadkin | west of the sound
  19. 19. The Secret Origin of Globalization
  20. 20. (cc) 2006 by Flickr user elmada
  21. 21. (cc) 2006 by Flickr user Wide Open Code
  22. 22. Megatechnologies
  23. 23. (cc) 2007 by Flickr user Khalid Almasoud
  24. 24. The New Colonial Powers (?)
  25. 25. Multinational Corporations (MNCs) A corporation which takes on many national identities, maintaining relatively autonomous production and sales facilities in individual countries, establishing local roots and presenting itself in each locality as a good local citizen. Globalized operations are linked to one another but are deeply integrated into the individual local economies in which they operate.
  26. 26. Transnational Corporations (TNCs) Corporations whose global networks are integrated around vertically integrated supplier networks. Although a TNC may choose to claim local citizenship when that posture suits its purpose, local commitments are temporary, and it actively attempts to eliminate considerations of nationality in its efforts to maximize the economies that centralized global procurement makes possible.
  27. 27. An Ideal World? <ul><li>The world’s money, technology, and markets are controlled and managed by gigantic global corporations; </li></ul><ul><li>A common consumer culture unifies all people in a shared quest for material gratification; </li></ul><ul><li>There is perfect global competition among workers and localities to offer their services to investors at the most advantageous terms; </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations a free to act solely on the basis of profitability without regard to national and local consequences; (Dow, Bhopal) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships, both individual and corporate, are defined entirely by the market; and, </li></ul><ul><li>There are no loyalties to place and community. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Future Forms? Metanational Corporations Global Crime Syndicates Guerrilla Entrepreneurs
  29. 29. The Five Dimensions of Global Cultural Flow <ul><li>Ethnoscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Mediascapes </li></ul><ul><li>Technoscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Finanscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Ideoscapes </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ethnoscape the landscape of persons who constitute the shifting world in which we live: tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles, guest workers, and other moving groups and individuals. Constitute an essential feature of the world and appear to affect intra- and international politics to a “hitherto unprecedented degree.
  31. 31. Technoscape the global configuration (ever fluid) of technology and the fact that technology, both high and low, both mechanical and informational, now moves at high speeds across various kinds of impervious boundaries.
  32. 32. Financescape complex fiscal and investment flows (which move at “blinding speed”) which link economies together through global grids of currency speculation and capital transfer.
  33. 33. Mediascape the distribution of the electronic capabilities to produce and disseminate information (newspapers, magazines, television stations, & film-production studios) as well as the images of the world created by these media.
  34. 34. Ideoscapes concatenations of images, often directly political and frequently have to do with the ideologies of states and the counterideologies of movements explicitly oriented to capturing state power or a piece of it.
  35. 37. Ethnoscapes

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