Fascism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
 
 
 
Totalitarian + Reactionary
Totalitarianism the complete control of society – government, social, economic, cultural institutions – in order to fulfil...
Gleichschaltung
Reactionary
Fascism is “a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values…from beneath the ruins of liberal, socialist, and democratic do...
A Syncretic Ideology
Concerns on the Right
Concerns on the Left
Corporatism
Defining Fascism
nationalism + conservatism = Fascism
nationalism + socialism = Fascism
Fascism an ideology which strives to forge social rebirth based on a holistic-national radical Third Way, though in practi...
Goin’ Fishin…
Nationalism
Volkish  movement
Anti-Enlightenment/anti-positivism
Psychology Philosophy Sociology
Superpatriotism the tendency to place nationalistic pride and supremacy above every other public consideration, the readin...
FEAR
“ The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are b...
“ In order to bring a nation to support the burdens of maintaining great military establishments, it is necessary to creat...
The Cold War The Long War
Human Nature
 
We are defined by our differences…
 
Freedom
Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.
Believe, Obey, Fight!
The Fascist View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Fascism”) OBSTACLE: Individualism, Independent Groups, Class Divisions AGEN...
The Leader
3 Elements of Fascist Elitism <ul><li>Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is ce...
3 Elements of Fascist Elitism <ul><li>Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is ce...
Fuehrerprinzip
3 Elements of Fascist Elitism <ul><li>Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is ce...
Insistence on “belief”
The Herd
Cult of Personality
Nazism
Similarities to Fascism
Fascism + Racism = Nazism
volksgemeinschaft
The Nazi View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Fascism”)   OBSTACLE: “ Inferior” races, Humanitarian Ideas, Class Divisions A...
Fascism as an Ideology
Explanation
Evaluation
Orientation
Political Program
Britt’s Study of Fascism <ul><li>Adolph Hitler’s Nazi Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Benito Mussolini’s Italy </li></ul><ul><li...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism  <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain fo...
 
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Fascism

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Presentation prepared for lectures on Fascism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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Transcript of "Fascism"

  1. 1. Fascism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 5. Totalitarian + Reactionary
  3. 6. Totalitarianism the complete control of society – government, social, economic, cultural institutions – in order to fulfill an ideological vision of how society should be organized and how life should be lived.
  4. 7. Gleichschaltung
  5. 8. Reactionary
  6. 9. Fascism is “a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values…from beneath the ruins of liberal, socialist, and democratic doctrines, Fascism extracts those elements which are still vital… supercede[s] socialism and supercede[s] liberalism…creates a new synthesis…Man is integral, he is political, he is economic, he is religious, he is saint, he is warrior.” - Benito Mussolini
  7. 10. A Syncretic Ideology
  8. 11. Concerns on the Right
  9. 12. Concerns on the Left
  10. 13. Corporatism
  11. 14. Defining Fascism
  12. 15. nationalism + conservatism = Fascism
  13. 16. nationalism + socialism = Fascism
  14. 17. Fascism an ideology which strives to forge social rebirth based on a holistic-national radical Third Way, though in practice it has tended to stress style, especially action and the charismatic leader, more than detailed program, and a demonization of its enemies.
  15. 18. Goin’ Fishin…
  16. 19. Nationalism
  17. 20. Volkish movement
  18. 21. Anti-Enlightenment/anti-positivism
  19. 22. Psychology Philosophy Sociology
  20. 23. Superpatriotism the tendency to place nationalistic pride and supremacy above every other public consideration, the readiness to follow our leaders uncritically in their dealings with other nations, especially confrontations involving the use of military force and violence.
  21. 24. FEAR
  22. 25. “ The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.” - Hermann Goering
  23. 26. “ In order to bring a nation to support the burdens of maintaining great military establishments, it is necessary to create an emotional state akin to war psychology. There must be the portrayal of external menace.” - John Foster Dulles
  24. 27. The Cold War The Long War
  25. 28. Human Nature
  26. 30. We are defined by our differences…
  27. 32. Freedom
  28. 33. Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.
  29. 34. Believe, Obey, Fight!
  30. 35. The Fascist View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Fascism”) OBSTACLE: Individualism, Independent Groups, Class Divisions AGENT: The Nation-State GOAL: The power and glory of the state
  31. 36. The Leader
  32. 37. 3 Elements of Fascist Elitism <ul><li>Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is centralized and unlimited, rather than divided and checked. </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers derive superior knowledge about the national interest from their own intuitions, rather than deriving goals and programs by consulting the people. </li></ul>
  33. 38. 3 Elements of Fascist Elitism <ul><li>Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is centralized and unlimited, rather than divided and checked. </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers derive superior knowledge about the national interest from their own intuitions, rather than deriving goals and programs by consulting the people. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Fuehrerprinzip
  35. 40. 3 Elements of Fascist Elitism <ul><li>Fascism abandons the idea of electoral accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is centralized and unlimited, rather than divided and checked. </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers derive superior knowledge about the national interest from their own intuitions, rather than deriving goals and programs by consulting the people. </li></ul>
  36. 41. Insistence on “belief”
  37. 42. The Herd
  38. 43. Cult of Personality
  39. 44. Nazism
  40. 45. Similarities to Fascism
  41. 46. Fascism + Racism = Nazism
  42. 47. volksgemeinschaft
  43. 48. The Nazi View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Fascism”) OBSTACLE: “ Inferior” races, Humanitarian Ideas, Class Divisions AGENT: Aryan Race, Volksgemeinschaft GOAL: Racial Supremacy, “ Thousand-Year Reich”
  44. 49. Fascism as an Ideology
  45. 50. Explanation
  46. 51. Evaluation
  47. 52. Orientation
  48. 53. Political Program
  49. 54. Britt’s Study of Fascism <ul><li>Adolph Hitler’s Nazi Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Benito Mussolini’s Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Francisco Franco's Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio De Oliveiro Salazar's Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>George Papadopolous's Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Agosto Pinochet's Chile </li></ul><ul><li>Mohamed Suharto's Indonesia </li></ul>
  50. 55. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  51. 56. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  52. 57. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  53. 58. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  54. 59. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  55. 60. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  56. 61. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  57. 62. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  58. 63. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  59. 64. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  60. 65. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  61. 66. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  62. 67. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  63. 68. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>
  64. 69. The 14 Defining Characteristics of Fascism <ul><li>1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Disdain for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identification of Enemies As A Unifying Cause </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supremacy of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rampant Sexism </li></ul><ul><li>6. Controlled Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>7. Obsession With National Security </li></ul><ul><li>8. Religion and Government Intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>9. Corporate Power Protected </li></ul><ul><li>10. Labor Power Suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Obsession With Crime and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fraudulent Elections </li></ul>

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