Anarchism

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Presentation prepared for lectures on Anarchism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory at the University of Kentucky, Spring 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Instructor.

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Anarchism

  1. 1. Anarchism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 3. “ I must tell you first of all what anarchism is not . It is not bombs, disorder, or chaos. It is not robbery or murder. It is not a war of each against all. It is not a return to barbarism or to the wild state of man. Anarchism is the very opposite of all that .” – Alexander Berkman, American anarchist, 1929
  3. 4. ?
  4. 6. Anarchism The philosophy of a new social order based on liberty unrestricted by man-made law; the theory that all forms of government rest on violence and are therefore wrong and harmful, as well as unnecessary.
  5. 8. Enragés
  6. 11. Order is the genus: Government is the species
  7. 12. anarchos
  8. 13. Anarchism is not as systematic an ideology as liberalism or Marxism
  9. 14. Liberty Equality Solidarity
  10. 15. Anarchism may be seen as a descendant of both Liberalism and Marxism
  11. 16. freedom and equality are complementary , not contradictory
  12. 17. Progress & History
  13. 18. Linear Dialectic Dualistic
  14. 19. Linear Dialectic Dualistic
  15. 20. Linear Dialectic Dualistic
  16. 21. HOPE, not certainty
  17. 22. A little of column A, A little of column B
  18. 23. Anarchist Conception of Freedom
  19. 24. Agent
  20. 25. The individual is the basic unit of society…
  21. 26. … but full humanity can only be achieved by membership in a community/ society.
  22. 27. Individual-in-Community
  23. 28. Human Nature
  24. 29. 2 basic impulses
  25. 30. “ Kill the social sense in man – and you get a savage orangutan; kill egoism in him and he will become a tame monkey.” - Alexander Herzen
  26. 31. Self-interested impulse to subdue others for individual purposes
  27. 32. An impulse to help others (Mutual Aid)
  28. 33. Human Malleability
  29. 34. HOPE
  30. 36. Prisoner’s Dilemma Both serve two years Prisoner A goes free Prisoner B serves ten years Prisoner A Betrays Prisoner A serves ten years Prisoner B goes free Both serve six months Prisoner A Stays Silent Prisoner B Betrays Prisoner B Stays Silent
  31. 37. Prisoner’s Dilemma 1,1 Lose, lose 5,0 Win much, lose much Defect 0,5 Lose much, win much 3,3 Win, Win Cooperate Defect Cooperate
  32. 38. Public Goods
  33. 39. Tit-for-Tat Logic <ul><li>Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be &quot;nice&quot;, that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as &quot;nasty&quot; strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a ‘nice’ strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent). </li></ul>
  34. 40. Tit-for-Tat Logic <ul><li>Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be &quot;nice&quot;, that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as &quot;nasty&quot; strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a ‘nice’ strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent). </li></ul>
  35. 41. Tit-for-Tat Logic <ul><li>Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be &quot;nice&quot;, that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as &quot;nasty&quot; strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a ‘nice’ strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent). </li></ul>
  36. 42. Tit-for-Tat Logic <ul><li>Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be &quot;nice&quot;, that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as &quot;nasty&quot; strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a ‘nice’ strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent). </li></ul>
  37. 43. Kropotkin and Darwinism <ul><li>Does human nature demand cooperation? </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of the odds, cooperation does occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Is “enlightened self-interest” explanatory enough? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selfish Genes </li></ul></ul>
  38. 44. Goal
  39. 45. The highest level of individual freedom possible for the individual, the fulfillment of each individual’s full human potential, while at the same time developing human society to the highest degree possible.
  40. 46. Anarchism “seeks the complete development of individuality combined with the highest development of voluntary association in all respects, in all possible degrees for all imaginable ends.” - Kropotkin
  41. 47. The Problem of Conventional Institutions
  42. 52. A few goals… <ul><li>Overthrow of the State </li></ul><ul><li>End of private property </li></ul><ul><li>The end of “democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>The end of repressive social structures and values ( “transvaluation” of human values) </li></ul><ul><li>Full and rewarding work and leisure </li></ul>
  43. 53. Obstacle(s)
  44. 54. The State (!)
  45. 55. “ Of all the things which interfere with the free activity of the individual, which reduce liberty and compel us to act in ways different from those we would choose, the most powerful and pervasive is the state.” (Jennings)
  46. 56. The essential function of the state is to maintain the existing inequalities in society…
  47. 57. Private Property
  48. 58. Godwin: each article of property ought to belong to the individual whose possession of it would yield the greatest good for the greatest number; thus, property should be distributed according to claims of need.
  49. 59. “ Property is Theft” (Proudhon)
  50. 60. “ The only demand that property recognizes is its own gluttonous appetite for greater wealth, because wealth means power; the power to subdue, to crush, to exploit, the power to enslave, to outrage, to degrade.” - Emma Goldman
  51. 61. Democracy (?)
  52. 62. Decision-making by Consensus
  53. 63. The Anarchist Conception of Freedom
  54. 64. Anarchism as an Ideology
  55. 65. Explanation
  56. 66. Evaluation
  57. 67. Orientation
  58. 68. Political Program
  59. 69. 4 Approaches to Anarchism <ul><li>Armed and Violent Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda by the Deed </li></ul><ul><li>Transvaluation </li></ul>
  60. 70. 4 Approaches to Anarchism <ul><li>Armed and Violent Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda by the Deed </li></ul><ul><li>Transvaluation </li></ul>
  61. 71. 4 Approaches to Anarchism <ul><li>Armed and Violent Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda by the Deed </li></ul><ul><li>Transvaluation </li></ul>
  62. 73. 4 Approaches to Anarchism <ul><li>Armed and Violent Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda by the Deed </li></ul><ul><li>Transvaluation </li></ul>
  63. 74. Rebellion vs. Revolution
  64. 75. Rebellions MUST be: <ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Total </li></ul><ul><li> nternational </li></ul>
  65. 76. DISOBEY
  66. 77. The Coming Anarchism
  67. 78. Designing for Management of the Commons
  68. 79. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>Group boundaries are clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities. </li></ul>
  69. 80. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>Group boundaries are clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities. </li></ul>
  70. 81. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>Group boundaries are clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities. </li></ul>
  71. 82. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>Group boundaries are clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities. </li></ul>
  72. 83. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>A graduated system of sanctions is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Community members have access to low-cost conflict resolution systems. </li></ul><ul><li>For CPRs that are parts of larger systems, appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of nested enterprises. </li></ul>
  73. 84. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>A graduated system of sanctions is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Community members have access to low-cost conflict resolution systems. </li></ul><ul><li>For CPRs that are parts of larger systems, appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of nested enterprises. </li></ul>
  74. 85. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>A graduated system of sanctions is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Community members have access to low-cost conflict resolution systems. </li></ul><ul><li>For CPRs that are parts of larger systems, appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of nested enterprises. </li></ul>
  75. 86. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: <ul><li>A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>A graduated system of sanctions is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Community members have access to low-cost conflict resolution systems. </li></ul><ul><li>For CPRs that are parts of larger systems, appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of nested enterprises. </li></ul>
  76. 87. p2p Technologies and Anarchism
  77. 91. MojoNation’s 3 major fixes: <ul><li>Cooperation is structurally encouraged by requiring users to contribute at least as much as they take away. </li></ul><ul><li>Queries are anonymous and NOBODY knows where specific files are stored. </li></ul><ul><li>Swarm Distribution breaks up files into large numbers of small segments, distributed throughout the network. </li></ul>
  78. 92. MojoNation’s 3 major fixes: <ul><li>Cooperation is structurally encouraged by requiring users to contribute at least as much as they take away. </li></ul><ul><li>Queries are anonymous and NOBODY knows where specific files are stored. </li></ul><ul><li>Swarm Distribution breaks up files into large numbers of small segments, distributed throughout the network. </li></ul>
  79. 93. MojoNation’s 3 major fixes: <ul><li>Cooperation is structurally encouraged by requiring users to contribute at least as much as they take away. </li></ul><ul><li>Queries are anonymous and NOBODY knows where specific files are stored. </li></ul><ul><li>Swarm Distribution breaks up files into large numbers of small segments, distributed throughout the network. </li></ul>
  80. 94. /.
  81. 95. The “karma” system
  82. 96. jury duty
  83. 97. “ Anonymous Coward”
  84. 98. Filters
  85. 99. Four design goals <ul><li>Promote quality, discourage crap. </li></ul><ul><li>Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.” </li></ul>
  86. 100. Four design goals <ul><li>Promote quality, discourage crap. </li></ul><ul><li>Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.” </li></ul>
  87. 101. Four design goals <ul><li>Promote quality, discourage crap. </li></ul><ul><li>Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.” </li></ul>
  88. 102. Four design goals <ul><li>Promote quality, discourage crap. </li></ul><ul><li>Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.” </li></ul>
  89. 104. Craigslist
  90. 105. Reputation Systems
  91. 106. Gift Economies

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