THE MACEDONIAN ARMY
Macedonian Army Battle Tactics
CAVALRY CAVALRY
GREEK INFANTRY IN NORMAL FORMATION
Thessalian cavalry
to stop enemy
outflan...
The Phalanx
Used as a brute-force breakthrough formation.
Philip made the Phalanx a versatile weapon, with
the ability to ...
• Each man held a 6.5 metre-long pike or sarissa
with both hands, wore a Cuirass or breastplate,
and wore a shield around ...
• The men in the front five ranks would hold their
sarissas out in front. The ranks behind would
hold their sarissas in th...
• In open order, each man occupied an area of
1.8m². As the phalanx advanced the men would
close ranks until each occupied...
• The Macedonian phalanx was made up of 64
battalions of 256 men. (16,384 men)
• The phalanx could maneouvre into many
dif...
The Hypaspists
•
(Shield-Bearers)
• Equipment
– Thrusting Spear (Doru)
– Large Round Shield (Hoplon)
– Sword (Xiphos or Kopis)
• Divided into batallions of ...
The Companion
Cavalry
• The Companion cavalry were the elite
troops of the Macedonian army.
• Highly trained, they were able to change
to attack...
• Consisting of 8 squadrons, almost exclusively
made up of Macedonian nobles, they charged at
the enemy lines in order to ...
Thessalian Caavalry
• 1,800 – 2,000 men and horses.
• Xyston - 3.5–4.25 meters
– Held with both hands.
– Spearpoints at bo...
Greek Allied Cavalry
• 600 men and horses.
• Equipped similarly
• 16 x 8 formation
Thracian Cavalry
• 500 men and horses.
...
Paeonian Cavalry
• 300 men and horses.
• Javelins and Swords
• Light Cavalry used for Scouting
Agrianians (Peltasts)
• 10,...
Thracian Peltast
These men used
bow and arrow,
slings, and light
javelin. They
were lightly
armed and able
to evade the
ch...
The Persian Forces
• 5,000 Greek Hoplites
– Commanded By Memnon from a Cavalry Unit
– Placed at the rear (Untrustworthy)
•...
Persian Leaders Killed
• Spithridates - satrap of Ionia and Lydia
• Mithrobuzanes - satrap of Cappadocia
• Mithridates - s...
NO MERCY
• The Greek Mercenaries are quickly
Surrounded and butchered.
• 2,000 are enslaved as a message.
• 300 Persian Su...
Honors
• All dead are buried with military honors.
– Persians did not bury dead.
• Surviving relatives granted tax exempt ...
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The Macedonian Army - Alexander the Great

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Power Point focused on Alexander's army as it stood at the Battle of Granicus.
Weapons, numbers and styles of Units covered.

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The Macedonian Army - Alexander the Great

  1. 1. THE MACEDONIAN ARMY
  2. 2. Macedonian Army Battle Tactics CAVALRY CAVALRY GREEK INFANTRY IN NORMAL FORMATION Thessalian cavalry to stop enemy outflanking Macedonian Phalanx used as a holding force Hypaspists used to keep contact between Phalanx and Companion cavalry Companion cavalry used to deliver the main blow Light troops and cavalry to stop enemy outflanking Light Troops
  3. 3. The Phalanx Used as a brute-force breakthrough formation. Philip made the Phalanx a versatile weapon, with the ability to advance, hold and retreat in good order. It was primarily used as a holding force while the Companion cavalry delivered the main blow against the enemy.
  4. 4. • Each man held a 6.5 metre-long pike or sarissa with both hands, wore a Cuirass or breastplate, and wore a shield around his neck.
  5. 5. • The men in the front five ranks would hold their sarissas out in front. The ranks behind would hold their sarissas in the air to break the flight of arrows and other missiles. • If the phalanx broke formation the battle was effectively lost, so discipline was essential.
  6. 6. • In open order, each man occupied an area of 1.8m². As the phalanx advanced the men would close ranks until each occupied around 1m². If a defensive formation was required the men would lock shields and move closer until the men occupied 50cm².
  7. 7. • The Macedonian phalanx was made up of 64 battalions of 256 men. (16,384 men) • The phalanx could maneouvre into many different formations, but the most common were: Straight Oblique Open half square Crescent Open wedge
  8. 8. The Hypaspists • (Shield-Bearers)
  9. 9. • Equipment – Thrusting Spear (Doru) – Large Round Shield (Hoplon) – Sword (Xiphos or Kopis) • Divided into batallions of 1,000 men. – Alexander had 3 of these at Granicus. • The Hypaspists were an elite infantry unit, distinct from the phalanx. • They were more versatile and more highly trained than the phalanx. • They were usually deployed between the phalanx and the Companion cavalry in order to hold the Macedonian line together.
  10. 10. The Companion Cavalry
  11. 11. • The Companion cavalry were the elite troops of the Macedonian army. • Highly trained, they were able to change to attack in any formation, though the most common was the wedge. I C B I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I B I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I A A = Unit Commander B = Wing Commander C = Rearguard Commander
  12. 12. • Consisting of 8 squadrons, almost exclusively made up of Macedonian nobles, they charged at the enemy lines in order to drive home a concentrated punch designed to break a hole in the enemy formation. • The commander of the Companions, usually Alexander, who led his Royal Squadron, led from the front of the wedge. • These men carried a 12 foot sarissa, and were heavily armoured, each wearing a metal helmet, a bronze Corselet (body armour) and bronze Greaves (shin armour). • 2,600 Companion Cavalry at Granicus
  13. 13. Thessalian Caavalry • 1,800 – 2,000 men and horses. • Xyston - 3.5–4.25 meters – Held with both hands. – Spearpoints at both ends. • Rhomboid formation – Advantages? • Parmenion’s Troops • Guarded the Left Flank
  14. 14. Greek Allied Cavalry • 600 men and horses. • Equipped similarly • 16 x 8 formation Thracian Cavalry • 500 men and horses. • Javelins and Swords • Wedge formation
  15. 15. Paeonian Cavalry • 300 men and horses. • Javelins and Swords • Light Cavalry used for Scouting Agrianians (Peltasts) • 10,000 Men • Elite Light Infantry • Honored on the Right of Companion Cavalry. • A number of Javelins, Sword, No Armor Archers • 10,000 Men • Mostly from Crete • Powerful Bows
  16. 16. Thracian Peltast These men used bow and arrow, slings, and light javelin. They were lightly armed and able to evade the charge of the heavy cavalry. Scythian Archer
  17. 17. The Persian Forces • 5,000 Greek Hoplites – Commanded By Memnon from a Cavalry Unit – Placed at the rear (Untrustworthy) • 9,500 Peltasts • 10,000 Cavalry – Mostly light Cavalry – Armed with Javelins and Bows
  18. 18. Persian Leaders Killed • Spithridates - satrap of Ionia and Lydia • Mithrobuzanes - satrap of Cappadocia • Mithridates - son-in-law of King Darius • Arbupales - grandson of King Artaxerxes II • Phranaces - brother-in-law of King Darius • Rhoesaces - brother of Spithridates • Omares - commander of the Greek mercenaries • Niphates - a cavalry commander • Petines - perhaps a cavalry commander • Arsites - satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia -
  19. 19. NO MERCY • The Greek Mercenaries are quickly Surrounded and butchered. • 2,000 are enslaved as a message. • 300 Persian Suits of Armor are sent back to Parthenon in Athens – For everyone “except Sparta” But…
  20. 20. Honors • All dead are buried with military honors. – Persians did not bury dead. • Surviving relatives granted tax exempt status and are exempt from military service. • Alexander Commissions 25 Bronze Statues for the fallen Companion Cavalrymen. – Lysippus – Great Sculptor of the Time • Speaks with dying men and allows them to tell stories of bravery.
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