Intellectual Property and Attribution in a Cross-
Cultural Context: Understanding International
Students' Attitudes Toward...
If you want to write a poem you must first
copy three hundred good poems.
-Chinese Proverb
Hungarian President Resigns Amid
Plagiarism Scandal
http://nationalpostnews.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/schmitt.jpg?w=620
...
Vietnamese Physicist Retracts 7
Papers due to Plagiarism
June 3rd
http://www.tuoitrenews.vn/cmlink/tuoitrenews/education/e...
Not just an International Problem!
Historians Doris Kearns Goodwin and Stephen Ambrose have been
accused of plagiarism.
International Students: The Big Picture
• 700,000 International Students in 2011
• 32% Increase since 2000
• Top Five Coun...
Plagiarism and College Students
• 84% of college students believe they need to
cheat to get ahead
• 90% believe they won’t...
Culture?
• Culture: “A learned meaning system that
consists of patterns of
traditions, beliefs, values, norms, meanings
an...
Robert Kaplan- “Cultural Thought Patterns in
Inter-Cultural Education” (1966)
Another Way to Think About It!
Universalism vs. Particularism
• What countries do you think valued
universalism the most?
• The least?
Universalism Parti...
Value Universalism
Adapted from Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hamden-Turner’s research (see
www.7d-culture.nl/index1.html)
...
Individualism vs. Collectivism
• The following chart is adapted from Geert Hofstede’s website at www.geert-hofstede.com/ I...
Ouyang Huhua, Professor of English at
Guandong University of Foreign Studies:
• “The notion of plagiarism is alien to Chin...
• Peking University’s 2002 rule on plagiarism
was the first for a Chinese University.
Writing Across Borders
•3 Year Documentary from Oregon State’s Center for Writing
•How does culture play out in writing, a...
Why do international students plagiarize?
• Unintentional
– Cultural reasons
– Unfamiliar with the U.S. academic citation ...
International Students and Plagiarism
Detection Software
• “the inappropriate use of electronic plagiarism
detection syste...
International Students and Plagiarism Prevention
What Faculty can do:
• Create assignments that would be difficult to
plag...
What libraries can do
• International Student Workshops
– Avoiding plagiarism (philosophy as well as practice)
– American ...
• Questions about the presentation?
• Thoughts or reactions regarding the
Culture Mapping Activity?
Chris Sweet
Illinois W...
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Intellectual Property and Attribution in a Cross-Cultural Context: Understanding International Students' Attitudes Towards Citation and Plagiarism

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Beliefs regarding intellectual property and attribution in the United States vary greatly from those held in other parts of the world. International Students studying in the U.S. for the first time often struggle in writing classes with the when, why, and how of academic attribution and citation. Following the cultural norms of their home countries, these students often end up unintentionally plagiarizing portions of their writing. This presentation will examine cultural variations in regards to intellectual property and attribution. It will also provide guidelines for helping instructors and librarians who work with international students in writing courses.

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  • The president of Hungary, Pal Schmitt, resigned from his largely ceremonial post on Monday amid a storm of criticism over what he called “unfounded allegations” of plagiarism in his 1992 doctoral thesis. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/03/world/europe/hungarian-president-pal-schmitt-resigns-amid-plagiarism-scandal.html
  • Seminal article, but oversimplified and potentially ethnocentric.
  • Intellectual Property and Attribution in a Cross-Cultural Context: Understanding International Students' Attitudes Towards Citation and Plagiarism

    1. 1. Intellectual Property and Attribution in a Cross- Cultural Context: Understanding International Students' Attitudes Towards Citation and Plagiarism Chris Sweet Illinois Wesleyan University Information Literacy Librarian
    2. 2. If you want to write a poem you must first copy three hundred good poems. -Chinese Proverb
    3. 3. Hungarian President Resigns Amid Plagiarism Scandal http://nationalpostnews.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/schmitt.jpg?w=620 April, 2012
    4. 4. Vietnamese Physicist Retracts 7 Papers due to Plagiarism June 3rd http://www.tuoitrenews.vn/cmlink/tuoitrenews/education/education-news/researcher-plagiarizing-7-papers-blames-instructor-1.74561
    5. 5. Not just an International Problem! Historians Doris Kearns Goodwin and Stephen Ambrose have been accused of plagiarism.
    6. 6. International Students: The Big Picture • 700,000 International Students in 2011 • 32% Increase since 2000 • Top Five Countries of Origin 1. China 2. India 3. South Korea 4. Canada 5. Taiwan http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/~/media/Files/Corporate/Open-Doors/Fast-Facts/Fast%20Facts%202011.ashx
    7. 7. Plagiarism and College Students • 84% of college students believe they need to cheat to get ahead • 90% believe they won’t get caught – 1999 US World and News Report Survey • A University of Minnesota study found that “85% of all scholastic dishonesty cases related to plagiarism involved non-native speakers of English”. – Mundava & Chaudhuri, C&RL News, 2007
    8. 8. Culture? • Culture: “A learned meaning system that consists of patterns of traditions, beliefs, values, norms, meanings and symbols that are passed on from one generation to the next and are shared to varying degrees by interacting members of a community. – (Ting-Toomey and Chung)
    9. 9. Robert Kaplan- “Cultural Thought Patterns in Inter-Cultural Education” (1966)
    10. 10. Another Way to Think About It!
    11. 11. Universalism vs. Particularism • What countries do you think valued universalism the most? • The least? Universalism Particularism Focus on rules Focus on relationships Consistency of rules Flexibility of rules One truth or reality Multiple perspectives of reality “Get down to business” “Get to know you”
    12. 12. Value Universalism Adapted from Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hamden-Turner’s research (see www.7d-culture.nl/index1.html) Switzerland 97 Japan 68 U.S.A. 93 Mexico 64 Australia 91 India 54 Netherlands 90 China 47 Germany 87 Russia 44 Poland 74 Korea 37 France 73 Nepal 36
    13. 13. Individualism vs. Collectivism • The following chart is adapted from Geert Hofstede’s website at www.geert-hofstede.com/ It illustrates the degree to which individualism is valued in different cultures. Individualism Collectivism Identity as individual- “I” Identity in membership- “we” Value independence Value interdependence Freedom Stability Individual initiatives Consultation and consensus Heroes or champions Whole is credited- no favorites U.S. 91 India 48 China 20 Australia 90 Japan 46 West Africa 20 UK 89 Russia 39 Bangladesh 20 Sweden 71 Arab World 38 South Korea 18 Germany 67 Brazil 38 Pakistan 14 Austria 55 Mexico30 Ecuador 8
    14. 14. Ouyang Huhua, Professor of English at Guandong University of Foreign Studies: • “The notion of plagiarism is alien to Chinese culture, where there is no individual claim, no ownership over intellectual property, and it is hard for Chinese students to conceptualize the idea. • http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=401564
    15. 15. • Peking University’s 2002 rule on plagiarism was the first for a Chinese University.
    16. 16. Writing Across Borders •3 Year Documentary from Oregon State’s Center for Writing •How does culture play out in writing, and how are our expectations shaped by cultural preferences? •How do we assess international student writing? •What kinds of teaching and testing practices disadvantage international students and which help them improve as writers?
    17. 17. Why do international students plagiarize? • Unintentional – Cultural reasons – Unfamiliar with the U.S. academic citation models – Variations in what is considered “common knowledge” • Intentional – Coping strategy – Lack of language and writing skills – Think they can get away with it
    18. 18. International Students and Plagiarism Detection Software • “the inappropriate use of electronic plagiarism detection systems (such as Turnitin) could lead to the unfair and unjust construction of international students as plagiarists.” – Introna and Hayes, 2007
    19. 19. International Students and Plagiarism Prevention What Faculty can do: • Create assignments that would be difficult to plagiarize http://cgi.stanford.edu/~dept-ctl/tomprof/posting.php?ID=1001 • Simple awareness of different cultural attitudes towards plagiarism • Encourage class discussion about plagiarism • Make sure international students understand what constitutes plagiarism (course syllabus and assignment guidelines) • Require multiple drafts to catch problems early • General guidelines for plagiarism prevention: http://www.plagiarism.org/resources/documentation/plagiarism/learning/preventing_plagiarism_instructor.doc
    20. 20. What libraries can do • International Student Workshops – Avoiding plagiarism (philosophy as well as practice) – American Citation Systems – Library research skills • Faculty Workshops • Create (or link to) plagiarism tutorials • Core Cultural Values and Culture Mapping activity: http://www.carla.umn.edu/maxsa/documents/Cultural%20Values_MAXSA_IG.pdf
    21. 21. • Questions about the presentation? • Thoughts or reactions regarding the Culture Mapping Activity? Chris Sweet Illinois Wesleyan University csweet@iwu.edu

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