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Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
Built for Success:  Online Course Design and the COI Framework
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Built for Success: Online Course Design and the COI Framework

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This session will focus on the practical application of the three COI (Comunity of Inquiry) “presences” in course design. Strategies …

This session will focus on the practical application of the three COI (Comunity of Inquiry) “presences” in course design. Strategies
to build student engagement, community and pedagogical components for each presence will be summarized. A concrete example
of each presence will be explored in depth along with the process used to select effective technology and pedagogical components.
The session will close with a demonstration of the application of COI techniques in major LMS systems including Blackboard,
Moodle, and Canvas. Handouts and worksheets for designing online courses using the COI model will be provided.

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  • Some things are easier to do in one LMS than another.Our purpose is not to cover all the techniques and tools – they are ever changing.Faculty engagement is the key.We want faculty to be involved in their courses.
  • We want this result….So we do this….And we measure the results like this…Designing using the Deltak Quality FrameworkEvaluate.34 Question COI Survey
  • Note the Overlapping areas
  • Three categories of social presence used to operationalize the concept:Affective expression – learners share personal expressions of emotion, feelings, beliefs and valuesOpen communication – where learners build and sustain a sense of group commitmentGroup Cohesion – where learners interact around common intellectual activities and tasksWhat are the types of elements in an LMS that facilitate social presence?
  • Three categories of social presence used to operationalize the concept:Affective expression – learners share personal expressions of emotion, feelings, beliefs and valuesOpen communication – where learners build and sustain a sense of group commitmentGroup Cohesion – where learners interact around common intellectual activities and tasksCan be student generated – i.e. collaborative constructivism which is foundation of COI
  • Three categories of social presence used to operationalize the concept:Affective expression – learners share personal expressions of emotion, feelings, beliefs and valuesOpen communication – where learners build and sustain a sense of group commitmentGroup Cohesion – where learners interact around common intellectual activities and tasks
  • Moodle comes in all different shapes and styles and flavors.Coming from Angel, Students found this format more intuitive and easy to understand.
  • Canvas is open source. Created by two graduate students from University of Utah who were TAs with the intention of “disrupting the Learning Management System (LMS) market”. Very much student-centered. Students become the creators of content rather than passive recipients of information transfer.Student profile settings allow users to register third-party accounts such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn Skype, and Google. Additionally, users can control notification settings here to receive course updates through these mediums as well as text, email, etc.Canvas is based on the concept of a wiki. (Speak about what a wiki is) Wiki pages exist throughout Canvas and students can edit and view revisions as they’re made within the lms. (speak about pros and cons)Students can create announcements and reply to instructor annoucements. Similar to Moodle wall.Here is where members of the course and view another user’s facebook, twitter, skype, LinkedIn account information and connect with the person directly from within the course. When features are enabled within a course, students are able to create their own chat, Wimba or BBB sessions. The Collaboraiton link allows users to create a Googledoc that stays within the course and can then be turned in as an assignment – which is one of the options when students submit assignments.
  • By default, the module page is a course’s homepage. Users are immediately connected through customizable modules to events happening both within the course and outside the course, creating a very personalized course experience that helps to connect the student to the course.The Annoucement feature, which is this case, appears right at the top, is where faculty can keep students informed of course-specific information. Instructor-driven, only.The What’s New and To Do modules keep students notified of both any new content that’s been added to the course as well as upcoming assignments, creating a stronger sense of place within the course. Some of this content is controlled by using the due-date field within assignments.The Blog Module and Twitter feed tools are pre-set. It’s a start, but if these topics don’t have relevance to a course, then these would not have meaning. It would be nice to allow for course blogs and course wikis to be linked here. Additionally, the twitter feed is the same. Be nice to have a subject-specific twitter feed. Or, an html module where code can be embedded. Outside the course module page, instructors have a variety of tools to implement within their course that can both be tied to learning outcomes as well as provide opportunities for social presence. These tools can serve to assess whether students are meeting course objectives while simultaneously connecting students to each other and putting content creation in their hands.
  • Launch Canvas. Demo Video in multiple areas for both students (discussion board, wiki page with video introductions) and faculty (weekly overviews, grading). Show Conference link – Free account uses Big Blue Button – currently no record/archive option but due to change. Integration with Wimba.Show my profile where people can access info about meTied to #3 and #2. Demo Google DocWhen implemented correctly, blog and wiki tool, which can be used for grading, are very effective in social presence. Faculty need to create.
  • How easy is it to use an LMS to facilitate a class?What are the elements in an LMS that facilitate cognitive presence?
  • Constructivist activities within community that is most important – this is where knowledge is shared and developed. Facilitating this collaboration can be achieved by requiring group activities and collaborative interaction through discourse and debate.Pose critical questions to encourage inquiry. Progression through the inquiry cycle requires well-design learned activities, facilitation, and direction. Faculty need to move students through the cycleAssessment activities are congruent with LOs and are typically formative assessments that provide for feedback from instructor and peers. Activities include case studies, article reviews, individual or collaborative projects. Higher levels of cognitive presence found when the following are available:Audio feedbackSynchronous chatsNarrated screencasts using Adobe Captivate, Camtasia or other screencasting toolsMixed medium feedbackSaaS / Cloud-based word processors (Google Docs, EtherPad)Immersive learning environments such as SecondLife had learning curve, but studies suggest potential exisits
  • Constructivist activities within community that is most important – this is where knowledge is shared and developed. Facilitating this collaboration can be achieved by requiring group activities and collaborative interaction through discourse and debate.Pose critical questions to encourage inquiry. Progression through the inquiry cycle requires well-design learned activities, facilitation, and direction. Faculty need to move students through the cycleAssessment activities are congruent with LOs and are typically formative assessments that provide for feedback from instructor and peers. Activities include case studies, article reviews, individual or collaborative projects. Higher levels of cognitive presence found when the following are available:Audio feedbackSynchronous chatsNarrated screencasts using Adobe Captivate, Camtasia or other screencasting toolsMixed medium feedbackSaaS / Cloud-based word processors (Google Docs, EtherPad)Immersive learning environments such as SecondLife had learning curve, but studies suggest potential exisits
  • Each LMS will offer a variety of content types that can be used to facilitate progression through the 4 stages of Cognitive PresenceCanvas works in a Module format
  • Jesuit andIgnatian TraditionsGoal is to move students through the cycle: Trigger, Exploration, Integration, ResolutionImportant to recognize that course subject matter will influence the types of tools used to move student through the cycle. For example, in this course, Jesuit and Ignatian Traditions, this is a highly reflective topic where students are required to provide highly introspective points of view on personal values and leadership. Collaboration, then, takes place in the form of peer feedback and discourse, and not necessarily in collaborative projects. This, then, precludes activities such as the wiki and emphasizes activities such as a blog and discussion. Overview = itemMeet & Greet = DiscussionReadings = ItemWhat is Ignatian Spirituality? = AssignmentWho is St Ignatius = Mashup YouTubeJesuit 2.0 = External link to MarquetUnivPrinciples of Ignatian Leadership = Blog
  • Launch Canvas. Demo Video in multiple areas for both students (discussion board, wiki page with video introductions) and faculty (weekly overviews, grading). Show Conference link – Free account uses Big Blue Button – currently no record/archive option but due to change. Integration with Wimba.Show my profile where people can access info about meTied to #3 and #2. Demo Google DocWhen implemented correctly, blog and wiki tool, which can be used for grading, are very effective in social presence. Faculty need to create.
  • Teaching Presence is highly correlated to student satisfaction in a course.Caveat – You can give an instructor a well designed course, but that doesn’t mean it will be taught well.However, the organization and design facilitate Teaching presence. Examples…High Teaching Presence:Writing a weekly introduction email to all students each weekResponding to all student email and inquiries within 24 hoursReplying to each student’s discussion posts personally within 24 hoursMonitoring the course site at least two times a day, both morning and evening, including weekendsVs. ModerateTeaching presenceWriting a weekly introduction email to all students each weekResponding to all emails and inquiries within 48 hoursSummarizing student discussions weekly and replying to the students’ group discussions as a whole rather than individuallyMonitoring the course site daily at least 5 days during the week
  • Important and critical.Are your courses open or locked down?Your general template should take care of most of these.
  • Organization and Interface.Mix of media.OutcomesAssignments and Rubrics
  • Canvas does not allow for menu customizations. You work with what they give you, but Modules are created to provide structure. Canvas also allows for easy linking and mapping to content within a course to occur which can provide a very positive user experience
  • Blackboard’s course menu is completely customizeable and can consist of a variety of content areas, tool links, & module pages. Taking advantage of this will provide for personalized and heightened user experience. Students are now familiar with online course environments and will know right away of a course is not structured effectively and intuitively. Also, inclusion of dividers and subheaders are great organizational tools. Don’t limit yourself to pre-defined course structures from your institution. Additionally, Course Structures and Themes are now available to help instructors develop their own customized menus.
  • A good instructor can facilitate discourse in a wide variety of formats
  • How easy is direct instruction inside these LMS’s?
  • You can’t coach talent.The mindset of a facilitator.Teaching presence is highly correlated to student satisfaction.Common complaints from students.
  • Launch Canvas. Demo Video in multiple areas for both students (discussion board, wiki page with video introductions) and faculty (weekly overviews, grading). Show Conference link – Free account uses Big Blue Button – currently no record/archive option but due to change. Integration with Wimba.Show my profile where people can access info about meTied to #3 and #2. Demo Google DocWhen implemented correctly, blog and wiki tool, which can be used for grading, are very effective in social presence. Faculty need to create.
  • COI is widely used but often misunderstoodCOI is a “trailing” indicatorFaculty knowledge and use of the LMS capabilities is key.The clarity of course design Ability of the LMS to facilitate the course designThe great “leveling” effect – all courses wind up looking about the same.It’s easier to accept the defaults.The extent to which LMS features are utilized.Designer’s are unaware of features, or don’t know how to use them.
  • Transcript

    • 1. WelcomeGlenn Hoyle, PhDProgram Development ManagerCaroline Conlon, MLIS, MSEdInstructional Designer 2
    • 2. Who is Deltak?We partner with traditionalcolleges and universities to… Academic• Develop and support online programs Services that deliver exceptional student experiences Enrollment & Retention• Support the entire online student lifecycle to ensure persistence through Marketing & Recruitment to graduation Operations &• Broaden institutional reach Project Management• Generate profitable revenue growth Market Research & Analysis 3
    • 3. Building Quality Courses Design Deltak Quality Standards TemplatesStudent Surveys and CommentsFaculty Comments Evaluate ProduceLearning Analytics Production TeamOutcomes Master Course Model Faculty Development and Teach Resources Online Instructional Standards 4
    • 4. Community of InquiryOpen CommunicationGroup CohesionAffective Expression Triggering Event Exploration Integration Resolution Course Design and Organization Facilitating Discourse Direct Instruction 5
    • 5. COI Survey Instrument• 9 social presence items (3 affective expression, 3 open communication, 3 group cohesion)• 12 cognitive presence items (3 triggering, 3 exploration, 3 integration, 3 resolution)• 13 teaching presence items (4 design & facilitation, 6 facilitation of discourse, 3 direct instruction)
    • 6. Social PresenceSocial presence describes the extent towhich students feel connected to a realcommunity of peers who share their goalsand interests.Note: Affective Expression, Open Communication, & Group Cohesion 7
    • 7. Social Presence Strategies  Introductory, short content related videos (AE)  Peer interaction opportunities (AE)  Synchronous communication opportunities (chat, web conferencing, interactive whiteboards) (AE)  Incorporate social applications such as blogs, wikis, YouTube, Flickr, etc., and allow students to search for and add content (AE)Richardson, Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Ice, Swan & Garrison, 2012 8
    • 8. Social Presence Strategies  Make discussions a significant part of students’ grades (mandating interaction with classmates) (OC)  Community and collaborative building activities (GC)  Group problem solving  Group projects  Group discussionsRichardson, Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Ice, Swan & Garrison, 2012 9
    • 9. Social Presence in Engage (Moodle) Integration with Mahara (Groups and Portfolios) Personalize the Instructor “Facebook” Chat Recent Conversational Activity Profiles, Tone. Messaging 10
    • 10. Social Presence in Canvas Profile Settings Based on Student can post Wiki Announcements Integration with 3rd Party Apps Student Created Synchronous Collaboration 11
    • 11. Social Presence in Blackboard Custom Announcements Course Feed Blog Module Variety of Social Tools Twitter Feed Module 12
    • 12. Social Presence “Top Five” Caroline’s Top Five Glenn’s Top Five1. Video Capabilities in Canvas 1. Course Wall in Moodle2. Synchronous Communication 2. Messaging Features in Moodle in Canvas3. Third-Party Social Application 3. Mahara Groups Integration in Canvas4. Group / Collaborative 4. Blackboard Mobile App and Opportunities in Canvas iPad App for Engage.5. Blogs, Wiki tools in 5. Announcements in Blackboard Blackboard 13
    • 13. Cognitive PresenceCognitive presence describes the processa group of learners go through as theyexplore new ideas, reflect on how theyresonate or conflict with existingunderstanding, and finally integrate thenew concepts into a more comprehensiveview of the topic. 14
    • 14. Practical Inquiry Model 2 3 1 4http://communitiesofinquiry.com/sites/communityofinquiry.com/files/practicalinquiry.pdf 15
    • 15. Cognitive Presence Strategies Constructivist activities – Problem-based learning, case studies, online debates, online discussions, article reviews, individual or collaborative projects Collaborative technologies such as Adobe Connect, Captivate & Presenter, Camtasia, Wimba, Google Docs, Big Blue Button, synchronous chat, Voice Thread, EtherPadRichardson, Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Ice, Swan & Garrison, 2012 16
    • 16. Cognitive Presence Strategies Formative assessments that include mixed media feedback (audio, video, written) Facilitate progression through inquiry cycle by posing critical questions to encourage inquiryRichardson, Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Ice, Swan & Garrison, 2012 17
    • 17. Cognitive Presence in Canvas Triggering Event Exploration, Integration, & Resolution Exploration, Integration, & Resolution 18
    • 18. Cognitive Presence in Blackboard Triggering Event Exploration, Integration, & Resolution Exploration, Integration, & Resolution 19
    • 19. Cognitive Presence “Top Five” Caroline’s Top Five Glenn’s Top Five1. Discussion Board in Blackboard 1. Group functions in Moodle2. Blog, Wiki tools in Blackboard 2. Ability to embed external tools (BBB, Voicethread, Google Docs, etc.)3. Journal tool in Blackboard 3. Activities Settings in Moodle4. Wiki/Content Pages in Canvas 4. Mahara Journal tool5. Discussions in Canvas 5. Survey and Choice tools in Moodle 20
    • 20. Teaching PresenceTeaching presence refers to theorganization and design of the course,leading the discourse therein, andproviding constructive feedback to learners. 21
    • 21. Teaching Presence StrategiesDesign & Organization Consistent course structure Intuitive navigation Content presentation Topic overviews / introductions Guidelines, templates, samples, user guides, help options Mix of media in instructional contentRichardson, Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Ice, Swan & Garrison, 2012 22
    • 22. Course Design in Engage 23
    • 23. Course Design in Canvas 24
    • 24. Course Design in CourseSites 25
    • 25. StrategiesFacilitating Discourse Sharing meaning Identifying areas of agreement / disagreement Seeking to reach consensus / understanding Raise questions / make observations Keep discussions moving Manage inactive / dominant studentsRichardson, Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Ice, Swan & Garrison, 2012 26
    • 26. Teaching Presence StrategiesDirect Instruction Scaffolding learner knowledge Explanatory feedback Facilitate linking of content through expertise Measureable learning outcomes Logical use of formative / summative assessmentsRichardson, Arbaugh, Cleveland-Innes, Ice, Swan & Garrison, 2012 27
    • 27. Evidence of Teaching Presence “…encourage us and guide…” “We have …taught each other…” “…push us to look deeper…beyond basic assumptions.” “…make me think deeper and “…positive criticism” consider all options.” “…time you spend commenting on … assignments … most positive part...” 28
    • 28. Teaching Presence “Top Five” Caroline’s Top Five Glenn’s Top Five 1. Customizable Labels and “chunking”1. Course Menu in Blackboard options in Moodle2. Modules in Canvas 2. Grade by Rubrics in Moodle3. Internal linking/mapping in Canvas 3. Gradebook in Blackboard4. Learning Modules in Blackboard 4. Class Management: Manage active and inactive students in Moodle5. Grading in Canvas 5. Promising emerging practice: Learning outcomes in Blackboard and Moodle 29
    • 29. Learning Analytics• What types of evidence of the “presences” is important?• Are the reports comprehensive and easy to use?• How are reports used to inform changes and improvements? 30
    • 30. Reporting in Engage Forum StatisticsCompare Courses Assignments in Program 31
    • 31. Reporting in Engage QuizzesCourse Wall Postings 32
    • 32. Reporting in Canvas 33
    • 33. Reporting in Blackboard 34
    • 34. ConclusionsCaroline’s Key Take Aways Glenn’s Key Take Aways• Remember! We looked at • Form follows function: Some practical applications of three aspects of COI are easier and presences separately, but they more effective in one LMS versus are interdependent another.• Don’t be trendy: The tool or • Show, don’t tell: Provide technology should be used models, templates and training in because it’s the right tool or COI applications for Faculty technology • One size doesn’t fit all: Avoid• Resolution is the goal: Goal “cookie cutter” approaches. A should be for students to reach good design process is flexible the Resolution phase in the and adaptable. Practical Inquiry Model 35
    • 35. Thank YouGlenn Hoyle, PhDProgram Development ManagerGlenn.hoyle@Deltak-Innovation.comCaroline Conlon, MLIS, MSEdInstructional DesignerCaroline.Conlon@Deltak-Innovation.com 36
    • 36. Additional Resources• Lehman, R., & Conceicao, S. C. (2010). Creating a Sense of Presence to "be there" for distance: Learners. New York: Jossey Bass.• Richardson, J., Arbaugh, J., Cleveland-Innes, M., Ice, P., Swan, K., & Garrison, D. (2012). Using the community of inquiry framework to inform effective instructional design. In L. Moller & J. Huett (Eds.), The next generation of distance education: Unconstrained learning (pp. 97-125). Springer.• Xin, C. (2012). A Critique of the Community of Inquiry Framework. Journal Of Distance Education, 26(1), 1-13.• Boston, W., Díaz, S. R., Gibson, A. M., Ice, P., Richardson, J., & Swan, K. (2010). An exploration of the relationship between indicators of the community of inquiry framework And retention in online programs. Journal Of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 14(1), 3-19.• Barber, T. C. (2011). The Online Crit: The Community of Inquiry Meets Design Education. Journal Of Distance Education, 25(1), 1-16. 37
    • 37. Additional Resources• Kumar, S., Dawson, K., Black, E. W., Cavanaugh, C., & Sessums, C. D. (2011). Applying the Community of Inquiry Framework to an Online Professional Practice Doctoral Program. International Review Of Research In Open & Distance Learning, 12(6), 126-142.• Kennedy, n., & Kennedy, d. (2010). Between Chaos and Entropy: Community of Inquiry from a Systems Perspective. Complicity: An International Journal Of Complexity & Education, 7(2), 1-15.• Zydney, J., deNoyelles, A., & Kyeong-Ju Seo, K. (2012). Creating a community of inquiry in online environments: An exploratory study on the effect of a protocol on interactions within asynchronous discussions. Computers & Education, 58(1), 77-87.• Annand, D. (2011). Social Presence within the Community of Inquiry Framework. International Review Of Research In Open & Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56.• Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. (2011). Understanding cognitive presence in an online and blended community of inquiry: Assessing outcomes and processes for deep approaches to learning. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 42(2), 233-250. 38

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