Include assessment strategy into the ID process – meaning rather than testing student knowledge after instruction has been delivered, you are thinking about this during the design of your course – in fact, this is what drives the design of your course – taking an outcomes based approach. Align assessment strategy with learning objectives or learning outcomes – this should drive your assessment strategy – not the tools or technology that’s availableThink about assessment from learner perspective – consider this student will be working in an asychronousenviroment, so your course objectives/learning outcomes much be visible and understood by the student every step of the way. Additionally, as you’re designing your course consider
Figure out what learning outcomes areDecide what they should do to get therefinally determine how you’ll know if they’re successfulThis also ties in to Janet’s discussion on backwards design
Each level of Bloom’s taxonomy can help you move your students through the process of learning – from the most fundamental of remembering and understanding to the more complex of evaluating and creatingThe verbs listed on the left can tell students what they are expected to do. The activities on the right are tied to the specific outcome or objective an guides the instructor on the instructional and assessment strategies.The key is that these are measureable in that verbs are action verbs, and the activities can measure whether the student has met the objective.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT: Formativeassessments are used throughout the course and are part of the instructional processProvides information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happeningInforms instructors and students about understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be madeTypically, they are low-stakes or no-stakes assessmentsSUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS:on the other hand take place after the learning has been completed (unit, module, chapter, semester). Typically, no more formal learning will take place at this stage. Healthy balance of both typesReflection and feedback an essential part of formative assessmentFrequent low- / no-stakes formative assessments allow both you and your students to shape or modify efforts at accomplishing the learning outcomesIn BlackboardYou can also think of formative assessments as a means to get to know your students.The formative assessments can be graded based on participation and / or other criteria. A rubric will be a helpful tool for both you and your students.
What is Learner-Centered? An environment where teaching and assessing are intertwinedStudents are actively involved in the learning processCollaborativeRubrics take the mystery out of assessment for your students and provide clear, objective grading criteria for you to follow. When a student feels like he or she is in the dark about how their work will be evaluated by you, this can be a big hurdle for the student to overcomeInclude collaborative assessments – this can be done through the inclusion of blogs, wikis, and discussion boards, as well as group assignments. We will be looking at some of these tools in Blackboard.Use Assessment techniques that fit the context and align with learning objectivesDesign assessments that are clear, easy to understand, and likely to work in an online environment – In addition to rubrics, provide samples, templates, or examples of past work as a guide for students.
This goes back to those clear expectations in the 6 principles
The Column represents the Criteria that the student will be assessed in and the Row represents the level of PerformanceIf attached to an assessment in Blackboard, students can view the rubric alongside the task they’re being assessed on.
Pre-course surveys to measure pre-existing knowledge or skill in an area and Mid-term surveys to get feedback on activities or a new feature you’re trying out in Blackboard. Also, you can get general feedback on thoughts on how the class is going. Anonymous feedback – will elicit more candid responsesShow survey results from Morning Survey
Include samples / examples from previous classes that students can use as a guide
Again, the type of tool you use, should be based upon your course objectivesOver a dozen question types to choose from that include both objective t/f, mc type question. Can also include short answer and essay type questions. Faculty can include both types of questions in one assessment. Blackboard will automatically grade the objective type questions and you can then complete grading the on written subjective questions.Allow students opportunity to practiceReally important both for getting them comfortable with the technology, but also if you’re using a question pool, they can get a feel for what the real test will be like.Format questions in MS Word and import using the Blackboard Quiz GeneratorCreating quizzes in Blackboard can be tedious and you’re tethered to Blackboard during the process. Also, if you have pools of questions that exist in multiple places on your computer, they can be consolidated into one file and uploaded using this tool. Created by the College of Southern Idaho and link is in the folder. Copy/paste questions into a format that predefined by the tool, and uploads into Blackboard.Pools are a database of questions, or an inventory of questions that can be copied, exported, imported, or shared. Add test questions to pools for easy reuse and expansionThe nice thing about creating quizzes, tests, or pools is their portability. They can be so you’re doing the bulk of the work one time. Additionally, they can be easily changed or expanded on.Check with your textbook publisher to see if they offer question pools for your textbookCreate tests from random blocks or question pools whenever possibleReuse and repurpose assessment types once configured in BlackboardProvide feedback here based on responsePools are exportable for future use or for sharing with other facultyOnce the test is set up, the work is done. You only have to set this up once and can be preserved through a course copy. Questions can be added any time in the future. You can continue to expand and build the pools over time.When deploying tests in Blackboard, this is a two-part process. First step is to create the test, and the second part is to deplayMany options to consider: timed, multiple submission, what will student see upon completion, date restricted, randomize questionsIf reusing, and date restricted, you will have to make the adjustmentRandomize the questions
Attach files, templates, examples in the same fileEnter feedback directly onto the file. If in Word, you can use the Track Changes features or comments feature. When returning a file, remind students to view the file for your feedback
SafeAssign used to prevent plagiarism and not using it as a punitive tool.
Again, promote its use and provide rationale that it’s a prevention tool rather than a punitive tool. Allow students to have a trial submission.Incorporate many small assessments throughout the unit, course, or module. These ongoing activities or embedded assessment can reduce student anxiety and alleviate the one-chance-to-prove-myself anxiety
Assessment strategies for online learning
Assessment Strategies for Online Learning Caroline Conlon, eLearning Design Coordinator Faculty Development & Instructional Design Center
Session ObjectivesAssessment strategies and the instructional design processAssessment tools and their application for online learningAcademic integrity
Assessment and the Instructional Design ProcessInclude assessments are part of the ID processAlign assessment strategy with learning outcomes (i.e. “teach to the test”)Consider using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a guideInclude a blend of formative and summative assessmentsInclude student and teacher feedback
Course Alignment Learning Outcomes What do you want your students to learn? Activities Assessment What types of How will you knowactivities will help your your students have students meet learned? outcomes
Assessment CategoriesFormative Assessment Summative AssessmentSelf & Peer Assessments Midterm / Final Exam Surveys Quizzes Journals Standardized Tests Blogs Final Grades Wikis Final Presentations Discussion Boards Term Papers
6 Principles of effective online assessment• Design learner-centered assessments that include self- reflection• Design and include grading rubrics for the assessment of contributions to the discussion as well as for assignments, projects, and collaboration• Include collaborative assessments through public posting of papers, along with comments from student to student• Use Assessment techniques that fit the context and align with learning objectives• Design assessments that are clear, easy to understand, and likely to work in an online environment (Palloff & Pratt, 2009) Adapted from “Bloom’s Bakery, An Illustration of Bloom’s Taxonomy”
Assessment ToolsRubricsAllow for objective and consistent assessmentClarifies your expectations about assessmentMakes students accountable for their performanceProvides a rationale for gradingIf team teaching or TA is grading, provides a framework for all
Assessment ToolsSurveysUse Survey tool to gather aggregate responses from studentsRemind students surveys are anonymousIf desiring to share findings with students, copy/paste results into Word to post to Blackboard
Assessment StrategiesDiscussion Board, Wikis, Blogs, JournalsProvide clear expectations up front (word count, substance, use rubrics)Provide feedback or comments along with gradeIn the Discussion Board, best to grade by forum versus the thread
Assessment ToolsOnline Quizzes, Tests, and Pools Allow students opportunity to practice Format questions in MS Word and import using the Blackboard Quiz Generator Add test questions to pools for easy reuse and expansion Check with your textbook publisher to see if they offer question pools for your textbook Create tests from random blocks or question pools whenever possible
Assessment ToolsAssignmentsUse Assignment Manager for file exchangeAttach assignment instructions and/or template files when creating assignmentDownload submitted assignments for offline gradingEnter feedback electronically & return to students via the assignment
Assessment StrategiesSafeAssignUse SafeAssign for substantial written assignmentsInform students in the syllabus of the requirements to use SafeAssignCreate draft version for students to submit to in order to self-check their workMake originality reports viewable by students
Academic IntegrityPlagiarism –Use SafeAssignGet to know the student’s capabilities through the use of formative assessmentsTests and Quizzes –Randomize the order of test questionsRandomly select a percentage from test poolIf a home quiz or test, allow open book
Academic Integrity“Spending large quantities of valuabletime chasing after a small percentage ofcheaters can quickly lead to diminishingreturns” (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvacek, 2011)
ReferencesPalloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2009). Assessing theonline learner, resources and strategies forfaculty. Jossey-Bass Inc Pub.Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., &Zvacek, S. (2011). Teaching and learning at adistance, foundations of distance education.Allyn & Bacon.