p +1 σ +2 σ +3 σ -1 σ -2 σ -3 σ P( p ) = P( z ) = < > ≠ N( p, ) z =
Interpretation If the , then the probability of observing a sample that is is . null hypothesis is true proportion/mean less than, greater than, at least as extreme as p-value 1 2 p-hat 4 3
Fail to Reject the Null Hypothesis Reject the Null Hypothesis High p-value High likelihood of happening through natural sampling variation Low p-value Low likelihood of happening through natural sampling variation
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