Eat, fast and live longer

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  • 1. Has there ever been a more important comma than the one in this title? BBC Horizon: Eat, Fast and Live Longer• Read the text, do the exercises, which will help you prepare for the English exam, and then watch the excellent BBC video to practice your listening.1 Match the beginnings of the sentences to their endings2 Read the text, decide whether the statements are true or false and do the vocabulary exercise3 Complete the abstract Caloric restriction: powerful protection for the aging heart and vasculature with the missing grammar words4 Complete the abstract Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms with the missing vocabulary
  • 2. A diet rich in vitamins and fish may protect rather than relying on questionnaires tothe brain from ageing assess a persons diet.Elderly people with high blood levels of individuals with high levels of vitamins andvitamins and omega 3 fatty acids omega 3 in their blood were more likely to have a large brain volume.The research looked at nutrients in blood, who had more trans fats in their blood.US experts analysed blood samples from who had more vitamin B, C, D and E in104 healthy people with an average age of their blood performed better in tests of87 memory and thinking skills.They found those who had few known risk factors for Alzheimers.The poorest scores were found in people had less brain shrinkage and better mental performance.On performing brain scans, the while junk food has the oppositeresearchers found that effect, research suggests
  • 3. Read the text below about intermittent fasting• http://hub.jhu.edu/magazine/2012/summer /dont-feed-your-head
  • 4. Don’t feed your head. True or False• The brain uses a lot of energy• Dr Mattson recommends not eating for 2 days a week• Stressing the body is bad for the brain• Tests have only been done on rodents so far.• The results of intermittent fasting on the brain are greater than those of overall calorie reduction.• The brain is able to grow new brain cells with protective protein plaques.• Overeating can have negative effects on how the brain works.• Fasting is not appropriate for all age groups.
  • 5. Find words or expressions in the text which mean:1. constitutes 2 are in agreement3 obtain 4 strategies5 difficulties 6 maintaining7 prepares 8 encouraged9 are the basis of 10 fit/attack11 boost12 nourished excessively13 damaging14 periods
  • 6. J Neurochem. 2003 Feb;84(3):417-31. Mattson MP, Duan W, Guo Z. Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms.Abstract• Although all cells in the body require energy to -----1----- and function properly, excessive calorie intake over long time periods can compromise cell function and promote disorders such as cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes and cancers. Accordingly, dietary restriction (DR; either caloric restriction or intermittent fasting, with maintained vitamin and mineral-----2-----) can extend lifespan and can increase disease resistance. Recent studies have shown that DR can have profound effects on brain function and can protect neurons -----3-----degeneration in animal models of Alzheimers, Parkinsons and stroke. DR can also stimulate the production of new neurons from stem cells and can -----4----- synaptic plasticity, which may increase the ability of the brain to resist aging and restore function ------5----- injury. Interestingly, increasing the time interval between meals can have beneficial effects on the brain and --- --6 ----- health of mice that are independent of cumulative calorie intake. The -----7-----effects of DR, particularly those of intermittent fasting, appear to be the result of a cellular stress response that stimulates the production of proteins that enhance neuronal plasticity and resistance to oxidative and metabolic insults; they ----8- ----- neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), protein chaperones such as heat-shock proteins, and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Some beneficial effects of DR can be -----9 ----- by administering hormones that suppress appetite (leptin and ciliary neurotrophic factor) or by supplementing the diet with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, which may act as a calorie restriction mimetic. The profound influences of the quantity and -----10 ----- of food intake on neuronal function and vulnerability to disease have revealed novel molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby diet affects the nervous system, and are ----11- ----- to novel preventative and therapeutic
  • 7. Insert the following words into the abstract Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticityand vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms.• following survive include overall enhance achieved intake leading against timing beneficial
  • 8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197347/ Edward P. Weiss 1,2 and Luigi Fontana2,3Caloric restriction: powerful protection for the aging heart and vasculatureCalorie restriction has numerous beneficial effects on the aging cardiovascular system, many of -----1----- appear to be mediated, at least partly, by reductions in oxidative stress and inflammationin the vasculature and heart. -----2----- vascular benefits, animal studies have demonstrated thatCR attenuates the age-related decline in the antiadhesion and vasodilatory functions of theendothelium and blunts the increase in arterial stiffness that occurs with advancing age. Futurestudies are needed to determine -----3----- CR in humans also has beneficial effects onendothelial function and arterial stiffness. Evidence from animal studies -----4----- suggests thatCR protects against atherosclerosis;-----5----- , these findings are limited, largely because mostanimal species used in CR studies are not prone to atherosclerosis. -----6----- human CR studiesinvolving direct measures of atherosclerosis are currently not practical or ethical for use inhealthy human subjects, developing technologies -----7----- imaging of atherosclerosis [asreviewed elsewhere (159)] may make such studies feasible in the future.-----8-----, a large bodyof evidence, from both human and animal studies, indicates that CR has profound beneficialeffects on risk factors for atherosclerosis.-----9-----, epidemiologic data from JapaneseOkinawans suggest that CR protects -----10----- coronary heart disease.
  • 9. Insert the following words into the abstractCaloric restriction: powerful protection for the aging heart and vasculature however which whether for with respect to meanwhile while also against furthermore
  • 10. Now watch the BBC Horizon programme forsome listening practice.The red Ferrari in the opening scene is drivenby Prof. Valter Longo,one of the two Italianresearchers featured in the programme…….http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q9_vGtbjHPQ
  • 11. A diet rich in vitamins and fish may protect the brain from ageing while junk food has the opposite effect, researchsuggests.Elderly people with high blood levels of vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids had less brain shrinkage and better mentalperformanceThe research looked at nutrients in blood, rather than relying on questionnaires to assess a persons diet.US experts analysed blood samples from 104 healthy people with an average age of 87 who had few known risk factorsfor Alzheimers.They found those who had more vitamin B, C, D and E in their blood performed better in tests of memory and thinkingskills. The poorest scores were found in people who had more trans fats in their blood. On performing brain scans, the researchers found individuals with high levels of vitamins and omega 3 in their bloodwere more likely to have a large brain volume; while those with high levels of trans fat had a smaller total brain volume.http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-16344228
  • 12. True or False• The brain uses a lot of energy T• Dr Mattson recommends not eating for 2 days a week T• Stressing the body is bad for the brain F• Tests have only been done on rodents so far. F• The results of intermittent fasting on the brain are greater than those of overall calorie reduction. T• The brain is able to grow new brain cells with protective protein plaques. F• Overeating can have negative effects on how the brain works. T• Fasting is not appropriate for all age groups. T
  • 13. Find words or expressions in the text which mean:• Makes up constitutes• Resonate are in agreement• Achieve obtain• Measures strategies• Challenges difficulties• Sticking to maintaining• Primes prepares• Coaxed encouraged• Underlie are the basis of• Seizure fit/attack• Kick-start boost• Overfed nourished excessively• Impairing damaging• Stretches periods
  • 14. J Neurochem. 2003 Feb;84(3):417-31.Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular andmolecular mechanisms.Mattson MP, Duan W , Guo Z.SourceLaboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.AbstractAlthough all cells in the body require energy to survive and function properly, excessive calorie intake overlong time periods can compromise cell function and promote disorders such as cardiovascular disease,type-2 diabetes and cancers. Accordingly, dietary restriction (DR; either caloric restriction or intermittentfasting, with maintained vitamin and mineral intake) can extend lifespan and can increase diseaseresistance. Recent studies have shown that DR can have profound effects on brain function andvulnerability to injury and disease. DR can protect neurons against degeneration in animal models ofAlzheimers, Parkinsons and Huntingtons diseases and stroke. Moreover, DR can stimulate the productionof new neurons from stem cells (neurogenesis) and can enhance synaptic plasticity, which may increasethe ability of the brain to resist aging and restore function following injury. Interestingly, increasing the timeinterval between meals can have beneficial effects on the brain and overall health of mice that areindependent of cumulative calorie intake. The beneficial effects of DR, particularly those of intermittentfasting, appear to be the result of a cellular stress response that stimulates the production of proteins thatenhance neuronal plasticity and resistance to oxidative and metabolic insults; they include neurotrophicfactors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), protein chaperones such as heat-shock proteins,and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Some beneficial effects of DR can be achieved by administeringhormones that suppress appetite (leptin and ciliary neurotrophic factor) or by supplementing the diet with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, which may act as a calorie restriction mimetic. The profound influences of the quantityand timing of food intake on neuronal function and vulnerability to disease have revealed novel molecularand cellular mechanisms whereby diet affects the nervous system, and are leading to novel preventativeand therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative disorders.
  • 15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197347/ Edward P. Weiss 1,2 and Luigi Fontana2,3Caloric restriction: powerful protection for the aging heart andvasculatureCalorie restriction has numerous beneficial effects on the aging cardiovascularsystem, many of which appear to be mediated, at least partly, by reductions inoxidative stress and inflammation in the vasculature and heart. With respect tovascular benefits, animal studies have demonstrated that CR attenuates theage-related decline in the antiadhesion and vasodilatory functions of theendothelium and blunts the increase in arterial stiffness that occurs withadvancing age. Future studies are needed to determine whether CR in humansalso has beneficial effects on endothelial function and arterial stiffness.Evidence from animal studies also suggests that CR protects againstatherosclerosis; however, these findings are limited, largely because mostanimal species used in CR studies are not prone to atherosclerosis. Whilehuman CR studies involving direct measures of atherosclerosis are currentlynot practical or ethical for use in healthy human subjects, developingtechnologies for imaging of atherosclerosis [as reviewed elsewhere (159)] maymake such studies feasible in the future. Meanwhile, a large body of evidence,from both human and animal studies, indicates that CR has profound beneficialeffects on risk factors for atherosclerosis. Furthermore, epidemiologic datafrom Japanese Okinawans suggest that CR protects against coronary heart